# Big Idea 8: Properties of Matter

A. All objects and substances in the world are made of matter. Matter has two fundamental properties: matter takes up space and matter has mass which gives it inertia.

B. Objects and substances can be classified by their physical and chemical properties. Mass is the amount of matter (or "stuff") in an object. Weight, on the other hand, is the measure of force of attraction (gravitational force) between an object and Earth.

The concepts of mass and weight are complicated and potentially confusing to elementary students. Hence, the more familiar term of "weight" is recommended for use to stand for both mass and weight in grades K-5. By grades 6-8, students are expected to understand the distinction between mass and weight, and use them appropriately.

Clarification for grades K-2: The use of the more familiar term ‘weight’ instead of the term “mass” is recommended for grades K-2.

Clarification for grades 3-5: In grade 3, introduce the term mass as compared to the term weight. In grade 4, investigate the concept of weight versus mass of objects. In grade 5, discuss why mass (not weight) is used to compare properties of solids, liquids and gases.

General Information
Number: SC.8.P.8
Title: Properties of Matter
Type: Big Idea
Subject: Science
Body of Knowledge: Physical Science

## Related Benchmarks

This cluster includes the following benchmarks.

## Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

## Independent

SC.8.P.8.In.1
Compare properties of solids, liquids, and gases.
SC.8.P.8.In.2
Recognize that the weight of an object is related to the pull of gravity.
SC.8.P.8.In.3
Observe and compare the density of various materials.
SC.8.P.8.In.4
Observe and compare substances based on their physical properties, such as thermal and electrical conductivity, solubility, or magnetic properties.
SC.8.P.8.In.5
Recognize that common elements combine in different ways to make up all living and nonliving things.
SC.8.P.8.In.6
Identify common elements, such as oxygen, iron, and carbon.
SC.8.P.8.In.7
Identify that matter is made of small particles called atoms.
SC.8.P.8.In.8
Identify common acids, such as lemon juice and vinegar, and bases, such as baking soda and ammonia, and their hazardous properties.
SC.8.P.8.In.9
Identify common materials as pure substances or mixtures.

## Supported

SC.8.P.8.Su.1
Recognize three states of matter, including solids, liquids, and gases.
SC.8.P.8.Su.2
Compare the weight of different sized objects.
SC.8.P.8.Su.3
Recognize that smaller objects can weigh more than bigger objects because of density.
SC.8.P.8.Su.4
Observe and compare substances by physical properties, such as weight, size, boiling and melting points, and magnetic properties.
SC.8.P.8.Su.5
Recognize that parts of matter can be separated in tiny particles.
SC.8.P.8.Su.6
Recognize examples of common elements, such as carbon or iron.
SC.8.P.8.Su.7
Recognize common acids, such as vinegar, and bases, such as ammonia, and their hazardous properties.
SC.8.P.8.Su.8
Recognize examples of pure substances and mixtures.

## Participatory

SC.8.P.8.Pa.1
Recognize examples of the gaseous state of matter, such as steam or smoke.
SC.8.P.8.Pa.2
Recognize the heavier of two objects.
SC.8.P.8.Pa.3
Recognize substances by physical properties, such as weight (heavy and light), size (big and small), and temperature (hot and cold).
SC.8.P.8.Pa.5
Separate a mixture into its parts.
SC.8.P.8.Pa.4
Recognize common acids as safe or harmful.

## Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Assessment

This can be used as a homework assignment or completed in the computer lab. Students will have to research information on one element and complete an advertisement for that element as if they were trying to market it.

Type: Assessment

## Educational Game

The Element Game:

The computer will randomly pick an element and present the student with that element's data from the Periodic Table of Elements. They will use that information to answer the question that the computer asks about the number of protons, neutrons, electrons or nucleons (particles in the nucleus) that an atom of that element contains.

Type: Educational Game

## Educational Software / Tool

Density: Sea Water Mixing & Sinking:

This is an excellent resource for teachers and students that provides student sheets, data graphs, vocabulary, and teacher notes as well as Big Ideas, Essential Questions, Data Tables, Formative Assessment questions - extremely teacher friendly who need assistance on this Big Idea and Concept. (The Preconceptions were helpful to my students.)

Type: Educational Software / Tool

## Lesson Plans

Students will solve real-world and mathematical problems involving area, density, volume and surface area of 2 – and 3-dimensional objects composed of triangles, quadrilaterals, polygons, cubes, and right prisms. Students will engineer solutions to the given problem using gained scientific content knowledge as application of mathematical skills

Type: Lesson Plan

Atomic Structure Unit: Lesson 3 - What's My Element?:

This is the final lesson 3 in the Atom Structure Unit. This lesson allows students to program in Scratch and switch the costumes based on the operational conditions placed on the sprite. The final product in this lesson will showcase the students' conceptual understanding of the atomic structure in a computer science medium.

Type: Lesson Plan

Atomic Structure Unit: Lesson 2 - Build Atom in Scratch:

This is lesson 2 of 3 in the Atomic Structure unit. This lesson helps students sketch atoms by placing electrons, neutrons, and protons by referring to the periodic table. This lesson also helps students upload/draw costumes on Scratch to create animated objects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Atomic Structure Unit: Lesson 1 - Science of an Atom:

This is lesson 1 of 3 in the Atomic Structure unit. This lesson helps students determine charge, structure and location of different components of an atom. This lesson also allows students to sketch the first 18 elements from the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

It's All About That Base and Acid:

This is an 8th grade science activity in which students will perform a variety of tests to determine the properties of different acids and bases.

Type: Lesson Plan

Stay Afloat in Water:

In this lesson, students will explore the physical characteristics of various liquids, including mass, volume, and density. They will perform a lab and analyze data to determine how liquids with different densities interact in a graduated cylinder.

Type: Lesson Plan

Slope Intercept - Lesson #1:

This is lesson 1 of 3 in the Slope Intercept unit. This lesson introduces graphing proportional relationships. In this lesson students will perform an experiment to find and relate density of two different materials to the constant of proportionality and unit rate.

Type: Lesson Plan

Drink Mix Mix-Up:

In this inquiry activity, students will identify unknown powdered drink mixes. They will use their knowledge of various physical properties to design tests for the unknown drink mixes and then compare them to the known. Students will use their own generated data as evidence to form a conclusion and support their findings.

Type: Lesson Plan

Knight Shipping, Inc.:

In this design challenge students will take what they have learned about calculating the volumes and densities of cones, cylinders, and spheres, to decide which shape would make the best shipping container. Students will calculate the volumes and densities to help select the best design and then test them to move at least 3 containers of the chosen shape across the classroom. Students will fill the shapes with marshmallows to visually confirm which shape would hold more.

Type: Lesson Plan

Scout Robot: Mass, Density, Volume, Weight:

In this MEA, students must select which material to use in the development of an advanced military scout robot. Students must analyze data about each material’s individual properties that would make it a valid choice for military or police service. Students must complete calculations to determine material density as well as the overall mass and weight of the robot. This lesson focuses on the characteristic properties of density, unit conversion, and differentiating between mass and weight.

Type: Lesson Plan

Periodic Table - Atoms and Bonding:

In this Model Eliciting Activity (MEA), students will use their knowledge of the organization of the periodic table and the basic properties of atoms to determine which elements should be used to develop compounds with two atoms of different elements. Students must determine the number of protons, neutrons, and electrons in a neutrally charged atom of an element using the periodic table. They must also determine which elements will likely bond together using their location on the periodic table. Students completing this MEA will develop two short essay responses to a client in the scientific industry.

Type: Lesson Plan

All the Small Things:

Students will observe and analyze visual representations. Students will sort, classify and compare their findings to known characteristics of pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures. Students will differentiate matter into pure substances (elements and compounds) and mixtures on a basic molecular level. Students will use hands-on card sorting to create a rule for sorting matter. The definitions of pure substance, mixture, element, and compound will be introduced.

Type: Lesson Plan

States and Phases of Matter:

Students will collect and analyze data on the kinetic energy of molecules through the different states of matter. Throughout the lab, students will be modeling the process of adding and removing energy from matter which leads to phase changes. Students will use their knowledge of states of matter to introduce the relative amount of kinetic energy in each state of matter, how changes in the kinetic energy can causes phase changes in matter, and what those phase changes are called.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring the Atom!:

Students will be able to explain what an atom is and what its subatomic particles are. Students will be able to read and locate the number of protons for each element on the periodic table. Knowing the location of the protons, they will gain knowledge about the electrons and the neutrons. They will also be able to model an atom and properly locate the protons, neutrons, and electrons.

Type: Lesson Plan

Investigating Elements - Metals, Non-Metals, and Metalloids:

This resource is a guided inquiry that will aid students in understanding how an element's physical and chemical properties determine its placement on the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Experiment with pH of Unknown Substances:

The inquiry method is used for students to gather data and problem solve to determine the identify of unknown pH values to be used to construct a pH value chart.

Type: Lesson Plan

Temperature and Particle Theory:

The resource allows students to model and describe how temperature affects molecular motion or particle theory.

Type: Lesson Plan

States of Matter:

States of matter seems like a simple concept. Everyone knows that water has a solid phase, which is ice, a liquid phase, which is water, and a gaseous stage, which is water vapor. At this level, students are expected to understand the motion of particles at the molecular level. A thorough understanding of particle motion is necessary in preparation for chemistry in the eight grade standards. This activity is fun at Halloween because families may use dry ice in Halloween displays.

Type: Lesson Plan

Musical Elements:

This resource is a research project that is part of a unit on atomic structure, the periodic table, and chemical bonding. Students form a group (band) and are assigned a part of the periodic table to research. They will discover why the periodic table is arranged the way it is and properties of different sections of the periodic table. Each group of students will create a band show poster that relates to properties of elements in their assigned section of the periodic table. Each individual student will also make a Facebook-type page that describes the properties and uses of a particular element in their "band."

Type: Lesson Plan

Pennies For Thought:

Through this two day lesson, students will learn the concepts of weight, mass, volume, and density, and be able to accurately measure them and understand the relationship between them. They will also be able to calculate a substance's density by taking two points on a graph and applying the rise/run equation.

Day one will include a pre-test to access prior knowledge on the concepts of weight, mass, volume and density. Direct instruction of their definitions along with practice measuring these four properties will be provided in the form of interactive centers.

The hook for day two will be a class demonstration. (You will need a balance, and 50 pennies divided into two separate piles: 25 pennies from the year 1981 and earlier and the other 25 newer than 1982.) The pennies will be measured by placing a penny from each pile on the balance until all the pennies have been placed on the balance; students will observe that as you add more pennies to each side, it becomes unbalanced. Discuss how it is possible to have two equal volumes of pennies be unbalanced using their knowledge of weight, mass, volume and density from the day before.

For the remainder of class, have them explore the relationship between mass, volume and density by measuring and graphing their two sets of pennies. By creating a double line graph of their volume and mass, they will discover that their densities (indicated by the slope in their graph) are different. And that by taking the points on their graph and applying the rise/run equation they can obtain the density of each group of pennies.

To provide enrichment for those that are ready to take it a step further, have them research and compare densities of commonly used metals to discover what their two groups of pennies were composed of and what change was made in 1982 to change the density of the pennies.

Type: Lesson Plan

Particle Movement in Solids, Liquids, and Gases:

Using guided notes and an interactive game, students will be able to describe the motion of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mixtures and Solutions Uncovered:

This lesson is a hands-on approach to SC.8.P.8.9 that the students enjoy and are engaged in. The main activities cover making anchor charts (teacher lead) that will assist them in completing activities that cover vocabulary and a break down of characteristics for mixtures. There are four group activities that will guide the students to an understanding of the standard outlined. This is a two-day lab that adds teacher demonstration and allows for collaborative group and student-talk sessions.

Type: Lesson Plan

Density Cube Lab:

Students will find the density of cubes made from different substances and determine if they sink or float.

Type: Lesson Plan

Rainbow Density Lab:

Students make salt water solutions varying in density to create a rainbow in a 10 mL graduated cylinder. Students apply their knowledge of solutes, solvents, solutions, and the properties of density.

Type: Lesson Plan

The What and How of Compounds :

This lesson helps students to differentiate between compounds and mixtures. This lesson will also help students understand how compounds are held together.

Type: Lesson Plan

Interactive classroom atom:

Students learn the charge and location of subatomic particles by dressing as them and creating an atom model in the classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Pure Substances, Mixtures and Solutions, Oh My!:

This lesson will assist students in distinguishing between pure substances and mixtures. Students will be able to identify elements and compounds as examples of pure substances. Students will also be able to distinguish between homogeneous (solutions) and heterogeneous mixtures.

Type: Lesson Plan

Density Dilemma:

This lesson is about density and its relationship to sinking and floating. First, previous knowledge will be assessed through a measuring activity of mass, volume, and density. Next, the topic of sinking and floating will be addressed and how they relate to density. Finally, students will undergo an independent activity where they will figure out how to make one object sink, one object float, and one object stay suspended in a liquid. Overall, this lesson contains 4 activities and 2 video clips. It can require 3 or 4 days to complete.

Type: Lesson Plan

Crime Scene Density Lab:

Students will learn about the practical application of density measurement in the context of conducting a crime scene investigation of a break-in at the school.

Type: Lesson Plan

Build An Atom:

This lesson provides students with the basic foundations of atomic theory and a simple understanding of the periodic table. It provides an easy-to-understand Prezi presentation before leading students into an easy and fun atom building simulation. Assessments are scored by the progam. A vocabulary website is also provided. It can be used on iPads or in a computer lab.

Type: Lesson Plan

Edible Mass vs. Weight:

Students will experiment with edibles (fun size Snickers candy bar, Oreo cookie, and Peppermint Puff candy) to measure their mass and calculate their weight on different planets. Students will be able to differentiate between weight and mass recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct from, though proportional to, mass.

Type: Lesson Plan

Element Most Wanted Poster:

Students will research an element from the Periodic Table of Elements and produce a Most Wanted poster allowing students to creatively detail the chemical and physical properties of a particular element.

Type: Lesson Plan

Alien Elements-Are they hiding here?:

This lesson is a high interest presentation and activity that presents the concepts of elemental composition, temperature effects, and states of matter geared to 8th graders.

Type: Lesson Plan

Stable Atom, Ion, or Isotope?:

This lesson will teach the concept of differences between stable atoms, ions, and isotopes. The students will take their knowledge of the atomic theory and will build models of varying atomic forms.

Type: Lesson Plan

Density of Solids and Liquids:

In this Lab, students create their own definition for the term density and calculate the densities of different substances- solids and liquids. Students will learn that every substance has its own unique density, depending on how tightly atoms or molecules of the materials are packed. Students gather data about known samples to infer the identity of an unknown sample.

Note: This lesson will only cover the density portion of benchmark SC.8.P.8.4

Type: Lesson Plan

Why do things float in water?:

In this lesson, the concept of density is effectively integrated into a lab. The students will understand why certain objects float in water and why others sink. This lesson requires the students to cooperatively work in groups, make predictions, examine data trends, and relate their understanding to real world objects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Students explore and describe the masses, volumes, and densities of various liquids and solid objects while mastering measuring techniques using various apparatuses.

Type: Lesson Plan

Atomic Theory:

The Purpose of the lesson is to teach the students about five major atomic theories using inquiry-based learning. By allowing the students to be introduced to the historical backgrounds and having each group to create a three dimensional figure and a poster, it allows the learning process to be student-driven, inductive and interactive.

Type: Lesson Plan

"Weight! What's the Mass?":

The lesson will teach students the difference between mass and weight with a hands-on activity and instruction. Students will simulate a reduction in gravity (i.e. a reduction in an object's weight) using water's buoyancy. The research question that the students will address is: "Will an object's mass and weight differ in and out of water?"

Teachers Note:  Prior to the lesson be sure that the balances that are to be used can be submerged in water and that they balance to horizontal or zero out while in water.  Different manufacturers and materials may prohibit the use of certain balances underwater since different materials may have different buoyancies that may impact the use of the balance underwater.  Please note that there is an optional variation of the activity that uses a 1000 mL beaker instead and does not require the balance to be submerged.

Type: Lesson Plan

NASA: Roving for the right wheel! 3D + MEA:

In this MEA, students will evaluate wheel designs from different companies to determine which wheel is appropriate for the mission. Further 3D printing is integrated by 3D printing different wheel models which can be directly tested using a LEGO Mindsorms Robot or Simple Rubber Band Powered Sled and different Regolith Simulants for the Moon and Titan.

Type: Lesson Plan

Glider Challenge:

Students will select a glider model that will meet the needs of a Summer Space Camp program.

Type: Lesson Plan

What does it mean to be dense?:

Students will use card stock patterns to create two mini-boxes that they can fill with three different substances. The density of each substance will be compared when contained in both the smaller and larger boxes. Students will use their observations to develop an argument describing how the change in volume of the box affected the density of the substance.

SC.8.P.8.4 will not be completely covered; only the physical property of density will be addressed.

Type: Lesson Plan

Students will learn about known elements and discover the products that can be made when those elements react.

Type: Lesson Plan

Search for Extraterrestrial Life:

Students rank locations that NASA should search within our solar system for life. Students begin by reading about the origins of life on Earth and locations within our solar system with the potential for life. After students create a ranked list, they must report their findings to NASA in the form of a letter that also includes the procedure used in ranking their choices. A second request is sent from NASA to include distance from Earth as a factor in the ranking of locations and students must return a letter with their revised rankings and the new procedure used.

Type: Lesson Plan

Silly Cylinders:

This is a short activity where students determine the density of the human body by considering each part of the body to be a cylinder. I use this activity during the second week of school, so students have already had some practice with measurement. In addition to providing students with practice in data collection and problem solving, it is a good activity that allows teachers to measure students' previous knowledge in these areas.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering Density:

Students observe the effects of density on flotation and develop an understanding of density as the amount mass per unit volume through discussion and experimentation. Students also work in groups to design an experiment to determine the densities of several irregularly shaped objects and use data to support a conclusion about the buoyancy of each object.

Type: Lesson Plan

Measurement in the Science Classroom:

Students will practice measuring length, mass, volume in a variety of ways using a variety of tools including triple beam balances and graduated cylinders. Density will then be calculated.

Type: Lesson Plan

Determining the density of regular and irregular objects:

This MEA provides students with opportunities to practice solving one-step equations while learning about density. Students will calculate density of regular and irregular objects.

Type: Lesson Plan

Last...but certainly not the least:

Through this activity, students will create a periodic table with Electron Dot Diagrams. This investigation allows students to explore and recognize patterns of the periodic table. This lesson allows students to draw conclusions and clearly demonstrates that atoms of elements in the same group have the same number of valence electrons while sharing similar properties and characteristics.

Type: Lesson Plan

Force (Weight versus Mass): Newton's 2nd Law:

Students will examine the relationships between mass, force and acceleration, applying Newton's 2nd Law.

This is part 2 of a two-part lab. It is recommended that the teacher cover the first lesson (, ID 51003) prior to completing this lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mystery Isotopes:

Through this engaging activity students work as a group to create models of isotopes with stickers and construction paper. Students also use models created by their peers to analyze the number of subatomic particles and determine isotopes' names. All worksheets and data collection sheets are included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Tranquilizer Chemistry - Temperature and Reaction Rates:

Students must select a tranquilizer dart to be used by the US Fish and Wildlife Service for researching large animals. Next, they must help the US Geological Survey choose a new drilling device. Each projectile has varying characteristics based on the temperature of the chemicals inside. Students must select which temperature lends itself to a reaction suitable for service in animal research or geological studies. Other factors due to temperature come into play as well, such as density and melting point.

Type: Lesson Plan

Is Popeye's Favorite Drink a Mixture or a Solution?:

In the cartoon, 'Popeye the Sailor Man', he ate spinach for quick energy and increased muscle power. This is aimed at what might be his favorite drink, a spinach smoothie which is an example of a heterogeneous mixture. This lesson can also be done by students in groups if more ingredients and supplies are obtained so everyone can mix up a Popeye smoothie.

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering Density:

In this lesson students will be asked to measure the volumes and masses of objects to determine their densities. Along the way students are expected to gain a greater understanding of the concept of density and the fact that it is a property of a material independent of an objects shape or volume.

Type: Lesson Plan

Atomic Theory Exhibit:

Students take visitors on a trip through time to view the development of the atomic theory. During the presentation they list scientists who contributed to our understanding, give dates, and display diagrams that represent the atom in various stages of its development.

Type: Lesson Plan

It's All Mixed Up!:

This lesson supports student understanding of mixtures and pure substances.

Type: Lesson Plan

Gas Laws:

This is a "gold star" lesson plan that incorporates the virtual manipulative "Gas Properties" from PhET (University of Colorado). Students investigate properties of gases, represent predictions graphically, test predictions using the manipulative, and then extend the knowledge into real investigations (i.e. non virtual).

Type: Lesson Plan

It's Just a Phase: Water as a solid, liquid, and gas:

In this lesson, students use BBs to represent molecules and model water in the solid, liquid, and gaseous states. Background information for teachers is provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Calculating a Mineral's Density:

Students will use the Density=Mass/Volume formula to calculate the density of an unknown mineral. By using water displacement and a triple beam balance students will collect measurements of volume and mass for an unknown mineral. With this data, they will calculate the mineral's density then identify the mineral based on calculated density.

Type: Lesson Plan

Constructing and Calibrating a Hydrometer:

Students construct and calibrate a simple hydrometer using different salt solutions. They then graph their data and determine the density and salinity of an unknown solution using their hydrometer and graphical analysis.

Type: Lesson Plan

Density – a relationship of mass and volume:

Students will be able to describe density and compare the densities of various materials using their masses and volumes.

Content statements:

• Density is the amount of matter filling the object's space.
• Adding mass to an object without changing its volume, increases the object's density.
• Objects that have a large mass and small volume have a high density.
• Objects that have a small mass and a large volume have a low density.

Type: Lesson Plan

Density and Viscosity:

Students perform an investigation leading them to conclude that temperature is a factor affecting viscosity. Reinforces graphing skills and cross disciplinary concepts.

Type: Lesson Plan

Density: A relationship of mass and volume using liquids:

Students will be able to compare and calculate the densities of various materials using their masses and volumes.

Content statements:

- Objects with the same mass but different volumes have different densities.
- Objects with different masses but the same volume have different densities.
- Liquids with different densities can be layered.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mass/Weight Connection:

Students will recognize that the mass of an object is a measure that is independent of gravity. If they can effectively complete the guided inquiry activity as well as the short writing summary to reinforce what they learned, they will gain a foundation for understanding the difference between mass and weight.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mixture or Solution?:

Textbook definition: "Mixtures are formed simply by blending two or more substances together in some random proportion without chemically changing the individual substances in the mixture."

Mixtures can then be broken down into homogeneous and heterogeneous. A homogeneous mixture is called a solution: salt or sugar and water, air (solution of gases). These have a constant composition throughout the solution. A heterogeneous mixture would be: salt with sugar (no water), water with gasoline or oil, salt with sand. These have areas with differing compositions (you could usually see the separation of the two things).

Type: Lesson Plan

Mystery Powder Investigation:

Students will use their skills as scientists to identify a mystery white powder. This lesson is a hands-on, engaging way to build students' understanding of physical and chemical properties of several common compounds.

Type: Lesson Plan

Periodic Table Family Album:

Mendeleev created the first periodic table based on atomic weight. He observed that many elements had similar properties, and that they occur periodically.

The periodic table can be divided into families of elements, each having similar properties.

Type: Lesson Plan

Properties of Acids and Bases:

In this lesson students will learn about the properties of acids and bases in relationship to the pH scale.

Type: Lesson Plan

Similarities of Elements:

This lesson explores elements and classification within the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

The movement of particles in solids, liquids, and gases.:

Students will be able to describe the motion of the particles in solids, liquids, and gases.

Content statements:
- The particles of a gas move quickly and are able to spread apart from one another.
- The particles of a liquid are able to move past each other.
- The particles of a solid are not able to move out of their positions relative to one another, but do have small vibrational movements.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Universe's Pantry Lesson 4 of 5:

This lesson, part of a series, introduces students to construct the idea that atoms combine to form molecules.

Type: Lesson Plan

## Original Student Tutorials

The Atom Part 2: The History of the Atom:

Follow the story of how the model of the atom has changed over time in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Atom Part 1: Big Things Come in Small Packages:

Explore atoms--the smallest unit of matter--and how they are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring the Periodic Table, Part 2: Groups:

Explore the organization of elements into groups on the periodic table and what the group location indicates about an element's atomic structure.

This is part 2 of 2 in a series of tutorials on the periodic table. Click below to open part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring the Periodic Table Part 1: Periods:

Explore the organization of elements on the Periodic Table and pay special attention to energy levels of elements that share periods in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2 in a series of tutorials on the periodic table. Click below to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mixtures and Pure Substances:

Learn the difference between pure elements, pure compounds, mixtures and solutions in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cooking with Chef Ragu: Acids, Bases, and Salts:

Join Chef Ragu as he learns about acids, bases, and salts while he cooks up something special. In this interactive tutorial you will compare and classify the properties of compounds that are acids, bases, and salts and identify basic examples of these compounds.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Classifying and Comparing Physical Properties:

Learn to identify physical properties, compare and contrast substances based on their physical properties. In this interactive tutorial, you'll focus on density and determine whether physical properties have the ability to change.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mass and Weight: What's the Difference?:

Differentiate between weight and mass, recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct though proportional to mass. In this interactive tutorial you'll help a curious chicken learn more about this important topic.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Atoms Make Up Everything:

Learn to demonstrate that there are a finite number of elements that combine to form all existing compounds, whether living or non-living, and in any state of matter.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Measuring Amounts of "Stuff": Exploring Density:

Learn to find the density (how many g/cm3) of three different objects, and explain what that number means with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to sequence a series of diagrams to create a model of a substance transitioning from a solid state to a liquid state in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Experts

MicroGravity Sensors & Statistics:

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Building and Deploying Floats:

Glass is the clear choice for deep ocean research probes, if you know what shape to use.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

Ocean Density:

Let these thoughts about ocean density really sink in!

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Factors Influencing Density of River-recovered Timber:

Coleman Mackie explains how tree density played a role in sinking old-growth timber and how it plays a role in recovery of those trees from Florida rivers.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

Properties of Materials:

This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings:

Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Build a Better Boat with 3D Printing!:

Learn how boat design can become an engineering challenge utilizing 3D printing!

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Shrinky Dink Density:

Shrinky Dinks for science! Students learn about the properties of Shrinky Dinks by finding their mass, volume, and density before and after shrinking.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Modeling Atoms:

Many students are initially daunted by the periodic table, but this science teacher has an idea to chip away at their intimidation by building atomic models.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Parades always have many exciting elements. This one is no exception.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Neutral Buoyancy Plankton:

This science educator floats a teaching idea about neutral buoyancy and density.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

In the dark about chemistry and conductivity? See the light as this chemist explains a great demonstration.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## Teaching Ideas

Now That is a Dense Graph:

Students will first measure and plot the total mass vs liquid volume in a graduated cylinder. They will then use slope and the mathematical formula for the plot to determine the density of the liquid, the density of a solid added to the liquid, and the mass of the graduated cylinder.

Type: Teaching Idea

Pump Up the Volume:

This activity is a statistical analysis of recorded measurements of a single value - in this case, a partially filled graduated cylinder.

Type: Teaching Idea

Now That is a Dense Graph:

In this activity, the density of ethanol is found by graphical means. In the second part, the density of sodium thiosulfate is found, also by graphical means. The values found are then analyzed statistically.

Type: Teaching Idea

M&M® Model of the Atom:

In this activity, learners use colored candy to represent subatomic particles and make a model of an atom (Bohr model). This activity will help familiarize learners with subatomic components of an atom as well as nuclear notation of the periodic table.

Type: Teaching Idea

How Low Can it Go? SeaWorld Classroom Activity:

Students will investigate how salt and other dissolved solids can lower the freezing point of water.

Type: Teaching Idea

Density of Solid Objects:

A series of straightforward simulations offers students a variety of ways to explore the concepts of mass, volume, and density. Students see that objects of the same mass may not have the same volume, objects of the same volume may not have the same mass, objects having a density greater than that of water sink in water, and the density of a floating object determines the position of the object in a tank of water.

Type: Teaching Idea

What causes pressure?:

This demonstration has students model pressure at the atomic scale. Students are molecules, bouncing off the walls of a container (roped in area) to represent pressure. The students change their speed, to demonstrate changing temperature, and show that pressure increases as temperature increases. Students can be added to the simulation to show density changes.

Type: Teaching Idea

## Text Resources

Atomic Theory:

This article is intended to support reading in the content area. The article provides a chronological description of the development of the atomic theory. Beginning with debates by Greek philosophers in the sixth century B.C., the various beliefs about atoms are explained. For around 2000 years, the subject lay dormant, until John Dalton developed his atomic theory in the 1800s. Delving into tests of Dalton's theory, the author explains how scientists, over time, developed what we now know as the modern day atomic theory.

Type: Text Resource

Explainer: How and Why Fires Burn:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article explains the science behind why and how fire burns. The article describes why fire is not considered matter and what is required for fire to burn, as well as how the atoms rearrange themselves during the combustion process.

Type: Text Resource

We Are Stardust:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text examines how humans and all things around us are made of elements created in stars. The article references fusion, the powerful collision of enormous stars, and the intense explosion of supernovas. All of this is tied to the creation of heavier elements that hurtle through space, to be reassembled as distant solar systems.

Type: Text Resource

Vitamin Can Keep Electronics 'Healthy':

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. When electric charges build up on objects, static electricity can occur. Static electricity can be particularly harmful to electronic devices if there are small static discharges. Researchers have found that treating electronics with vitamin E can help reduce static electricity by removing free radicals that are attached to the charges.

Type: Text Resource

Heat-Resistant Makeup:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have developed a new type of camouflage "makeup" for soldiers that can help prevent burns from nearby explosions. They have chemically swapped out flammable materials for a new heat-resistant polymer to create a type of makeup with applications well beyond the military.

Type: Text Resource

Acids and Bases Are Everywhere:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This informational text on acids and bases takes difficult content and explains it clearly with the aid of several simple diagrams. It explains the pH scale and how the chemists Arrhenius, Bronsted, and Lowry have contributed to our understanding of acids as donors and bases as acceptors.

Type: Text Resource

Will the World's Newest Lightest Material Be Instrumental in Cleaning Up Toxic Oil Spills?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Chinese researchers recently created a new "lightest solid," an aerogel of carbon nanotubes with a density of 0.16 mg/cm3. Unlike its aerogel predecessors, the substance has practical applications and may prove extremely helpful in cleaning up toxic oil spills.

Type: Text Resource

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Russian and U.S. scientists have collaborated to create for the first time element 117: "ununseptium." The element was created inside a machine called a cyclotron when atoms of berkelium and calcium were smashed together. While the element decays quickly, the new discovery has scientists very excited, as it fills a gap in the periodic table.

Type: Text Resource

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article gives a brief history on Mendeleev's organization of the first periodic table and then discusses the discovery and short life of ununpentium.

Type: Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

## Tutorial

Mass and Weight Clarification:

This tutorial covers the difference between mass and weight.

Type: Tutorial

## Unit/Lesson Sequences

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 5 | The Water Molecule and Dissolving:

Students investigate the polarity of the water molecule and design tests to compare water to less polar liquids for evaporation rate, surface tension, and ability to dissolve certain substances. Students also discover that dissolving applies to solids, liquids, and gases.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 4 | The Periodic Table & Bonding:

Students look more deeply into the structure of the atom and play a game to better understand the relationship between protons, neutrons, electrons, and energy levels in atoms and their location in the periodic table. Students will also explore covalent and ionic bonding.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 3 | Density:

Students experiment with objects that have the same volume but different mass and other objects that have the same mass but different volume to develop a meaning of density. Students also experiment with density in the context of sinking and floating and look at substances on the molecular level to discover why one substance is more or less dense than another.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 2 | Changes of State:

Students help design experiments to test whether the temperature of water affects the rate of evaporation and whether the temperature of water vapor affects the rate of condensation. Students look in detail at the water molecule to explain the state changes of water.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 1 | Matter—Solids, Liquids, and Gases:

Students are introduced to the idea that matter is composed of atoms and molecules that are attracted to each other and in constant motion. Students explore the attractions and motion of atoms and molecules as they experiment with and observe the heating and cooling of a solid, liquid, and gas.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Chemical Change Investigations | Inquiry in Action:

In this series of 10 investigations, students gain experience with the evidence of chemical change - production of a gas, change in temperature, color change, and formation of a precipitate. Students begin by observing that similar-looking powders can be differentiated by the way they react chemically with certain test liquids. Students then use their chemical tests and observations to identify an unknown powder and, in a follow-up activity, to identify the active ingredients in baking powder. Students continue to explore chemical change by using a thermometer to observe that temperature either increases or decreases during chemical reactions. Then they control these reactions by adjusting the amount of reactants. In another set of activities, students use the color changes of red cabbage indicator to classify substances as acids or bases, neutralize solutions, and compare the relative acidity of two different solutions. Students conclude the investigation by comparing a precipitate to one of the reactants that formed it. Students see that a new substance was created during the chemical reaction. Information and questions about photosynthesis and cellular respiration are included as examples of chemical changes on pages 316-318 of this resource.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

Middle School Chemistry Unit | Chapter 6 | Chemical Change:

Students explore the concept that chemical reactions involve the breaking of certain bonds between atoms in the reactants, and the rearrangement and rebonding of these atoms to make the products. Students also design tests to investigate how the amount of products and the rate of the reaction can be changed. Students will also explore endothermic and exothermic reactions.

Type: Unit/Lesson Sequence

## Video/Audio/Animations

Element Word Scramble:

Students test their knowledge about the names of elements and learn some of their properties through the hint provided with each scrambled word

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

The Periodic Table of Elements:

This interactive periodic table provides a good tool for teachers to obtain a historic background about the nature and properties of the elements

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Math Game:

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Matching Game:

Students match the names of elements of the periodic table with their symbols

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Flash Cards:

This game tests students' knowledge about elements, such as their symbols, atomic numbers, and names

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Concentration:

• Explain the concept of concentration
• Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
• Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
• Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

The Periodic Table of Videos:

This site was created by a team from the University of Nottingham in England. It features a video about each element on the periodic table, as well as some short videos about select molecules.

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Build an Atom:

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Teachers' Domain: The Atom:

This Flash interactive activity explores atomic structure at a pace that middle school students can easily understand. It contains 26 animated pages that depict the atomic nucleus and the three primary subatomic particles: electrons, protons, and neutrons. It gives learners a taste of the particles' properties, such as charge and mass, without introducing advanced terminology.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Density:

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Density of the gases is highly affected by the pressure and the temperature. This module simulates the measurement of the density of a gas sample. Different gaseous compounds and elements are available and the pressure and temperature of the sample can be adjusted. Learners will understand that density of an ideal gas can be doubled by doubling the pressure or by halving the temperature.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Archimedes' Principle:

This virtual manipulative will help the students understand Archimedes' principle which states that the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. This principle applies to both floating and submerged bodies and to all fluids. With this simulation, students will recognize that, if the body is less dense than the liquid it will float, whereas if a body is denser than the fluid, it will sink.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Density:

This resource will build the following skills:

• Describe the relationship of mass and volume to density.
• Compare objects of same mass and different volume and vice versa.
• Explain that density of a certain object does not vary with its mass or volume.
• Measure the volume of an object from fluid displacement.
• Use density to identify an unknown material.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

States of Matter: Basics:

This simulation will allow you to heat, cool and compress atoms and molecules and watch as they change between solid, liquid and gas phase.
Ideas to investigate:

• Describe characteristics of three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.
• Predict how varying the temperature or pressure changes the behavior of particles.
• Compare particles in the three different phases.
• Explain freezing and melting with molecular level detail.
• Recognize that different substances have different properties, including melting, freezing and boiling temperatures.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

• Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
• Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
• Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore Buoyancy:

Explore when objects float and when will they sink. Learn how buoyancy works with blocks by modifying the properties of the blocks and the fluid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

• Predict whether an object wills sink or float when place in a liquid, given densities of the object and liquid.
• Apply the definition of density to both liquids and solids
• Relate the buoyant force on an object to the weight of liquid it displaces
• Predict the weight of a completely or partially submerged object of known mass and volume
• Describe the forces that act on a completely or partially submerged object
• Explain how an object that is more dense than water can be kept afloat by placing it on an object that is less dense than water.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding solutions:

•Use pictures and proportional reasoning to explain changes in concentration
•Draw what happens at the molecular level when compounds dissolve in water
•Identify if a compound is a salt or sugar by macroscopic observations or microscopic representations.
•Explain how using combinations of solutes changes solution characteristics or not.
•Use observations to explain ways concentration of a solute can change.
•Describe ways the formula, macroscopic observations, or microscopic representations of a compound indicates if the bonding is ionic or covalent.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

pH Scale:

Students can test the pH of several substances and visualize hydronium, hydroxide, and water molecules in solution by concentration or the number of molecules. Students can add water to a given substance to see the effects it will have on the pH of that substance; or they can create their own custom substance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

PhET Gas Properties:

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Using this online calculator, students enter their weight on Earth. Their "weight" on other planets is calculated.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Worksheets

Mass vs. Weight:

This laboratory activity worksheet engages students in an exploration of mass and weight. Students use a balance and spring scale to measure the masses and weights of a several of objects. Students will analyze the data and determine the the relationship between mass and weight using graphing skills. An answer key is attached to assist the use of this resource.

Type: Worksheet

Composition of Matter:

This is a worksheet of examples to distinguish between elements, compounds and mixtures and between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures and between colloids and suspensions.

Type: Worksheet

## Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Original Student Tutorials

The Atom Part 2: The History of the Atom:

Follow the story of how the model of the atom has changed over time in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

The Atom Part 1: Big Things Come in Small Packages:

Explore atoms--the smallest unit of matter--and how they are made up of protons, neutrons, and electrons in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring the Periodic Table, Part 2: Groups:

Explore the organization of elements into groups on the periodic table and what the group location indicates about an element's atomic structure.

This is part 2 of 2 in a series of tutorials on the periodic table. Click below to open part 1.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Exploring the Periodic Table Part 1: Periods:

Explore the organization of elements on the Periodic Table and pay special attention to energy levels of elements that share periods in this interactive tutorial.

This is part 1 of 2 in a series of tutorials on the periodic table. Click below to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mixtures and Pure Substances:

Learn the difference between pure elements, pure compounds, mixtures and solutions in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Cooking with Chef Ragu: Acids, Bases, and Salts:

Join Chef Ragu as he learns about acids, bases, and salts while he cooks up something special. In this interactive tutorial you will compare and classify the properties of compounds that are acids, bases, and salts and identify basic examples of these compounds.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Classifying and Comparing Physical Properties:

Learn to identify physical properties, compare and contrast substances based on their physical properties. In this interactive tutorial, you'll focus on density and determine whether physical properties have the ability to change.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Mass and Weight: What's the Difference?:

Differentiate between weight and mass, recognizing that weight is the amount of gravitational pull on an object and is distinct though proportional to mass. In this interactive tutorial you'll help a curious chicken learn more about this important topic.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Atoms Make Up Everything:

Learn to demonstrate that there are a finite number of elements that combine to form all existing compounds, whether living or non-living, and in any state of matter.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Measuring Amounts of "Stuff": Exploring Density:

Learn to find the density (how many g/cm3) of three different objects, and explain what that number means with this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Learn to sequence a series of diagrams to create a model of a substance transitioning from a solid state to a liquid state in this interactive tutorial.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

## Perspectives Video: Expert

MicroGravity Sensors & Statistics:

Statistical analysis played an essential role in using microgravity sensors to determine location of caves in Wakulla County.

Type: Perspectives Video: Expert

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Properties of Materials:

This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings:

Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Text Resource

American Elements:

This web site features an interactive periodic chart that provides information on the elements, including a description, physical and thermal properties, abundance, isotopes, ionization energy, the element's discoverer, translations of element names into several languages, and bibliographic information on research-and-development publications involving the element. Additional information includes technical information and information on manufactured products for elemental metals, metallic compounds, and ceramic and crystalline products. The American Elements company manufactures engineered and advanced material products.

Type: Text Resource

## Video/Audio/Animations

Element Word Scramble:

Students test their knowledge about the names of elements and learn some of their properties through the hint provided with each scrambled word

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Math Game:

Students determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and nucleons for different atoms

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Matching Game:

Students match the names of elements of the periodic table with their symbols

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Element Flash Cards:

This game tests students' knowledge about elements, such as their symbols, atomic numbers, and names

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Science Crossword Puzzles:

A collection of crossword puzzles that test the knowledge of students about some of the terms, processes, and classifications covered in science topics

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

Concentration:

• Explain the concept of concentration
• Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
• Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
• Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Build an Atom:

Build an atom out of protons, neutrons, and electrons, and see how the element, charge, and mass change. Then play a game to test your ideas!

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Periodic Table:

This unique periodic table presents the elements in an interesting visual display. Select an element to find an image of the element, a description, history, and even an animation. Other chemical data is linked as a PDF file (requires Acrobat Reader).

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Density:

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Density of the gases is highly affected by the pressure and the temperature. This module simulates the measurement of the density of a gas sample. Different gaseous compounds and elements are available and the pressure and temperature of the sample can be adjusted. Learners will understand that density of an ideal gas can be doubled by doubling the pressure or by halving the temperature.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Density:

This resource will build the following skills:

• Describe the relationship of mass and volume to density.
• Compare objects of same mass and different volume and vice versa.
• Explain that density of a certain object does not vary with its mass or volume.
• Measure the volume of an object from fluid displacement.
• Use density to identify an unknown material.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

States of Matter: Basics:

This simulation will allow you to heat, cool and compress atoms and molecules and watch as they change between solid, liquid and gas phase.
Ideas to investigate:

• Describe characteristics of three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.
• Predict how varying the temperature or pressure changes the behavior of particles.
• Compare particles in the three different phases.
• Explain freezing and melting with molecular level detail.
• Recognize that different substances have different properties, including melting, freezing and boiling temperatures.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

• Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
• Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
• Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore Buoyancy:

Explore when objects float and when will they sink. Learn how buoyancy works with blocks by modifying the properties of the blocks and the fluid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

• Predict whether an object wills sink or float when place in a liquid, given densities of the object and liquid.
• Apply the definition of density to both liquids and solids
• Relate the buoyant force on an object to the weight of liquid it displaces
• Predict the weight of a completely or partially submerged object of known mass and volume
• Describe the forces that act on a completely or partially submerged object
• Explain how an object that is more dense than water can be kept afloat by placing it on an object that is less dense than water.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

pH Scale:

Students can test the pH of several substances and visualize hydronium, hydroxide, and water molecules in solution by concentration or the number of molecules. Students can add water to a given substance to see the effects it will have on the pH of that substance; or they can create their own custom substance.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

PhET Gas Properties:

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

## Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

## Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiasts

Properties of Materials:

This discussion about the physical properties of flamenco guitars is full of good vibes.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

How Material Properties affect Audio Recordings:

Want a clean sound in your recording? Oxidation will test your mettle. Make sure you choose the right material for the job.

Type: Perspectives Video: Professional/Enthusiast

## Perspectives Video: Teaching Ideas

Modeling Atoms:

Many students are initially daunted by the periodic table, but this science teacher has an idea to chip away at their intimidation by building atomic models.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

Neutral Buoyancy Plankton:

This science educator floats a teaching idea about neutral buoyancy and density.

Type: Perspectives Video: Teaching Idea

## Tutorial

Mass and Weight Clarification:

This tutorial covers the difference between mass and weight.

Type: Tutorial

## Video/Audio/Animation

Concentration:

• Explain the concept of concentration
• Explain the effect of concentration changes on colors of solutions
• Demonstrate the effect of changing the amount of solute, or solvent, or both on the concentration of the solution
• Identify a saturated solution

Type: Video/Audio/Animation

## Virtual Manipulatives

Gas Density:

Density is defined as mass per unit volume. Density of the gases is highly affected by the pressure and the temperature. This module simulates the measurement of the density of a gas sample. Different gaseous compounds and elements are available and the pressure and temperature of the sample can be adjusted. Learners will understand that density of an ideal gas can be doubled by doubling the pressure or by halving the temperature.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Archimedes' Principle:

This virtual manipulative will help the students understand Archimedes' principle which states that the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the displaced fluid. This principle applies to both floating and submerged bodies and to all fluids. With this simulation, students will recognize that, if the body is less dense than the liquid it will float, whereas if a body is denser than the fluid, it will sink.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Density:

This resource will build the following skills:

• Describe the relationship of mass and volume to density.
• Compare objects of same mass and different volume and vice versa.
• Explain that density of a certain object does not vary with its mass or volume.
• Measure the volume of an object from fluid displacement.
• Use density to identify an unknown material.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

States of Matter: Basics:

This simulation will allow you to heat, cool and compress atoms and molecules and watch as they change between solid, liquid and gas phase.
Ideas to investigate:

• Describe characteristics of three states of matter: solid, liquid and gas.
• Predict how varying the temperature or pressure changes the behavior of particles.
• Compare particles in the three different phases.
• Explain freezing and melting with molecular level detail.
• Recognize that different substances have different properties, including melting, freezing and boiling temperatures.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Gas Properties:

Students will pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as they change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more. Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

• Students can predict how changing a variable among pressure, volume, temperature and number influences other gas properties.
• Students can predict how changing temperature will affect the speed of molecules.
• Students can rank the speed of molecules in thermal equilibrium based on the relative masses of molecules.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Explore Buoyancy:

Explore when objects float and when will they sink. Learn how buoyancy works with blocks by modifying the properties of the blocks and the fluid.

Some of the sample learning goals can be:

• Predict whether an object wills sink or float when place in a liquid, given densities of the object and liquid.
• Apply the definition of density to both liquids and solids
• Relate the buoyant force on an object to the weight of liquid it displaces
• Predict the weight of a completely or partially submerged object of known mass and volume
• Describe the forces that act on a completely or partially submerged object
• Explain how an object that is more dense than water can be kept afloat by placing it on an object that is less dense than water.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

Understanding solutions:

•Use pictures and proportional reasoning to explain changes in concentration
•Draw what happens at the molecular level when compounds dissolve in water
•Identify if a compound is a salt or sugar by macroscopic observations or microscopic representations.
•Explain how using combinations of solutes changes solution characteristics or not.
•Use observations to explain ways concentration of a solute can change.
•Describe ways the formula, macroscopic observations, or microscopic representations of a compound indicates if the bonding is ionic or covalent.

Type: Virtual Manipulative

PhET Gas Properties:

This virtual manipulative allows you to investigate various aspects of gases through virtual experimentation. From the site: Pump gas molecules to a box and see what happens as you change the volume, add or remove heat, change gravity, and more (open the box, change the molecular weight of the molecule). Measure the temperature and pressure, and discover how the properties of the gas vary in relation to each other.

Type: Virtual Manipulative