Lesson Plan Template: Learning Cycle (5E Model)
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will be able to test and describe how:
- heat flow affects the ease of opening closed jars that have been submerged in different temperature water baths
- heat flows in predictable ways
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Students should know that: (SC.5.P.8.4 Explore the scientific theory of atoms (also called atomic theory) by recognizing that all matter is composed of parts that are too small to be seen without magnification).
• everything is made up of matter
• matter is made up of atoms
• a change of state is a physical change
• heat flows from a hot object to a cold object and that heat flow may cause materials to change temperature (SC.4.P.11.1)
Students are expected to have previously:
- been placed in lab groups - link to Miami Dade County Public Schools
- understand all of the safety issues expected during an investigation
- learned how to follow the scientific method as part of an investigation
- learned how to use Claim, Evidence and Reasoning approach in the laboratory investigation
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- How would you explain the direction of heat flow in terms of temperature? Cite examples.
- What impact could the direction of heat flow have on your daily life? Cite examples.
Engage: What object, event, or questions will the teacher use to trigger the students' curiosity and engage them in the concepts?
- Show the video clip for middle school students that introduces the concept of heat flow by conduction. (Youtube)
- The teacher will display a new, previously unopened glass jar, such as spaghetti sauce, pickles, pimentos, baby food, or similar.
- Can you help me figure out how to safely open this jar? Tell the students that you've been trying to open the jar with no success. Elicit ideas from students on what you may do to make your task easier. • Student answers may include tapping the jar, tapping the lid with an object, running it under hot water.
- Tells students that those are all interesting ideas. And ask students to narrow their suggestions to those that would involve the transfer of heat energy. • Student answers will vary, but should include the transfer of heat energy. Examples may include running the jar under hot water, sitting the jar in the sun, using a hot towel or sponge to grip the jar, or similar. Accept all answers that involve heat energy transfer as possibilities. But don't give students the 'correct' answers at this point. Tell them that they will investigate a situation in lab today.
Note: At the end of the lesson, as group data agrees that the hot water bath results in easier opening lids, apply this to the unopened jar as a demonstration.
Explore: What will the students do to explore the concepts and skills being developed through the lesson?
Students will explore the effects of heat flow on the ease of opening a jar with closed lid during a lab activity. Science Lab Report Student.docx
Science Lab Report Answer Key Teacher.docx
Vocabulary: Heat, heat flow, temperature, matter, atoms, states of matter, experimental data, physical change, freezing point, melting point, kinetic energy, thermal expansion, conduction
Have the students write down the words leaving space to define them. They may define those they know. Ask for students to volunteer and share the meaning of each word and give an example. For those words that no student knows, the teacher should provide the definition and example.
The teacher will circulate between the groups asking probing questions.
1. In which direction is heat flowing? (from warmer to cooler). Why do you think so?
2. In which of the three set-ups would there be the least amount of heat transfer? (room temperature water). Explain.
3. In which direction does heat flow in the cold water bath? (from the jar/lid to the cold water)
4. If you could compare the initial and final temperatures of the jar/lid after being submerged in the cold water bath, would you expect the jar/lid temperature to increase or decrease? (you would expect the temperature of the jar/lid to decrease)
5. If you could compare the initial and final temperatures of the jar/lid after being submerged in the hot water bath, would you expect the jar/lid temperature to increase or decrease? (you would expect the temperature of the jar/lid to increase)
6. How do your answers above apply to the ease or difficulty of opening a jar/lid combination? (students should relate the movement of heat from warmer to cooler to the jar/lid submerged in hot water and understand that this will result in a greater ease of opening the jar/lid).
Explain: What will the students and teacher do so students have opportunities to clarify their ideas, reach a conclusion or generalization, and communicate what they know to others?
Allow students to report out by group. The jars submerged in hot water are expected to open easier than the others. This is because heat flows from warmer to cooler temperatures. In this case, from the hot water bath into the jar/lid. As the heat flows from the hot water bath to the jar/lid, the kinetic energy of the atoms will increase. Because each type of matter has a physical property called coefficient of expansion- a unique constant, the amount of thermal expansion will vary according to the type of matter (plastic, glass, tin, etc). Metals have a higher coefficient of expansion than glass, for example, which results in the lid having a greater volume than the glass.
1. What is heat? Heat is a type of energy that is transferred between objects that are at different temperatures. Energy is always passed from the object that has the higher temperature to the object that has the lower temperature. When you touch something "cold," heat flows from your body to that object. When you touch something "hot," heat flows from the object into your body.
2. How Do Objects Reach the Same Temperature? When objects come into contact and they have different temperatures, heat energy will always be transferred. The heat energy will go from the warmer object to the cooler object until both have the same temperature.
3. What is Kinetic Energy? Matter is made up of constantly moving atoms and/or molecules. We will refer to them as particles. These particles move continuously even though the movement isn't visible to the human eye. When particles are in motion, they have kinetic energy. Adding heat causes the particles to move faster. The faster the particles move the more kinetic energy that they have. Temperature is a measure of this kinetic energy.
4. What is Thermal Expansion? As heat is added and temperature increases, an objects particles have more kinetic energy. The particles move faster and move apart. As the space between the particles increases, the object expands. This is called thermal expansion.
More information can be found at: Thermal Expansion
- The teacher may decide to have the students do either the Claim OR the Hypothesis. Both are unnecessary.
- Students should relate data collected to the heat flow concept.
- Conclusions will vary depending on the type of material the jar/lid is made of. (For example: if student group is using a glass jar with tin lid, the expectation is that the tin will expand faster than the glass which would make for easier opening. However, if the jar/lid is a peanut butter jar made of plastic/plastic, the expectation would be that no difference in expansion rate would be noticed).
Elaborate: What will the students do to apply their conceptual understanding and skills to solve a problem, make a decision, perform a task, or make sense of new knowledge?
Refer back to your new, unopened jar and ask students to answer your original question. What did you learn today that will make opening the jar easier? (students should respond submerging the jar in hot water will increase the temperature and the kinetic energy of the particles, making the particles spread apart due to thermal expansion, resulting in loosening the lid).
Show Perspectives Video - SC.7.P.11.4 - Sarah and Bridget Coakley Description: Your heart will melt as you watch a mother-daughter team explain how heat is used for glass artistry
- Ask students: What was the effect of heat in the video? (the heat caused the glass to melt and change states of matter)
- The point at which matter changes state, from a solid to a liquid is the melting point
- The point at which matter changes state, from a liquid to a solid is the freezing point
- Both of these are characteristic physical properties of matter
Ask students to:
- describe at least one other career that requires workers to depend on heat transfer/ heat flow (answers will vary)
Have students read Time For Kids Article: Packing a Safe Lunch
- Ask students to explain the findings in the article and relate to the Heat Flow / heat transfer concepts that they have just learned. (answers will vary, but applying the concept that heat flows from warmer to cooler objects until the temperatures are the same should make students realize the importance of keeping food cold by some means).
Link to Miami Dade County Public Schools
Link to Claim Evidence Reasoning Rubric published by Miami Dade County Public Schools
- Students will complete a lab report with emphasis on the conclusion section. Share rubric with students prior to investigation. Discuss the Claim, Evidence, Reasoning approach as outlined in document.
- Have students answer the following questions:
Explain the movement of heat energy when:
- you place a fresh pack of ground turkey into the freezer for a period of time
- you pour a room temperature soda into a glass filled with ice
1. When a fresh pack of ground turkey is placed into a freezer the temperature is the freezer is colder than the meat itself. The heat flows from the meat into the freezer environment. As the temperature of the meat drops, it eventually freezes.
2. When pouring a room temperature soda over ice, the heat flows from the soda into the ice. This lowers the temperature of the soda and melts the ice.
Teacher will informally assess students with a series of questions.
1. Describe what the jar is made of? (various materials such as glass, plastic, metal, etc.)
2. What one scientific word can be used to describe what all of these jars are made of? (matter - which is made up of atoms)
3. Identify the state of matter for the jar/lid? (solid)
4. Explain what basic units matter is made up of? (atoms). Does this change with a change in the state of matter? (No)
5. What is the effect of adding heat to matter? (increases kinetic energy / motion of particles)
6. Would all matter react the same to heat? (No. For example, if the same amount of heat is added to glass and tin, then the tin will gain more kinetic energy at a faster rate than glass and therefore expand faster).
7. Is there any visible change in the jar/lid configuration when submerged in various temperature water? (no)
8. After analyzing experimental data, did water temperature affect the ease of opening the lid? (Yes, the jars submerged in warmer water opens with less effort).
Feedback to Students
A determination of student understanding will continuously occur throughout this lesson, beginning with a review of basic concepts during the engagement section and concluding with feedback on the lab report.