Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Describe factors that influence an object's gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum.
- Calculate gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum.
- Describe changes to kinetic and potential energy as an object moves down a ramp.
- Analyze changes in motion that occur as a result of a collision.
- Describe changes in momentum that occur as a result of a collision.
- Determine whether energy is conserved in an experimental situation.
- Determine whether momentum is conserved in an experimental situation.
- Organize data within a data table.
- Graphically represent data.
- Analyze data and draw conclusions based on your analysis.
- Support claims with logical reasoning and relevant evidence.
- Communicate an outcome or solution clearly to others.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- Definitions and formulas for velocity, gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum
- Differences between scalar and vector quantities
- How to calculate velocity
- Factors that affect motion
- How to establish a reference point
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- What factors affect an object's gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum? How?
- How do the gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum of an object change as it moves down an incline?
- How do the gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum of an object change as it moves across a smooth, level surface?
- How do the gravitational potential energy, kinetic energy, and momentum of an object change after it collides with another object?
- How can it be determined if energy is conserved as an object rolls down an incline?
- How can it be determined if momentum is conserved as two objects collide?
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
- Students, working in groups, are provided with a standard ruler with a groove down the center, textbooks, a large marble, a steel ball, a small rubber ball, a golf ball, a 0.14 liter mini storage crate, a stopwatch, a measuring tape, and 15 pennies.
- They are simply instructed to use these materials to investigate the Law of Conservation of Momentum and the Law of Conservation of Energy.
- Optimally, students will utilize the ruler as a ramp and the textbooks to change the angle of incline.
- They will roll marbles/balls of different masses down the incline and allow them to strike mini storage crates containing varying numbers of pennies which have been placed a constant distance from the end of the incline.
- They will then measure the distance the crates travel after being struck by the marbles/balls and draw conclusions concerning the relationships between energy and work and initial and final momentum.
- The teacher should only provide guidance as needed and work to ensure that only one variable is altered at a time.
- This guidance should encourage students to collect the following data: the number of books used to form the ramp, the masses of each of the balls/marble, the height and length of each ramp, the time it takes for each ball/marble to roll down the ramp, the distance between the end of the ramp and the storage container, the time it takes for each ball/marble to travel from the end of the ramp to the container, and the distance the container is moved from the collision with the balls/marble.
- Guidance should also encourage each group to utilize a minimum of three trials and conduct measurements in significant digits.
- From this data, students will be able to calculate velocities, potential and kinetic energies, and momenta.
- They will then be able to graphically display bar graphs of initial and final gravitational potential, kinetic, and total energies and initial and final and total momenta before and after a collision.
Day 1: KWL, Pre-lab discussion, and Brainstorming
Day 2: Experimentation and collection of data
Day 3: Post-lab discussion and group presentations
Homework Assignment: Lab report and Lab questions
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
Students will participate in pre- and post- lab discussions which will be moderated by the teacher. They will also organize data in tables such as the following:
The teacher will then guide students in examining and analyzing data.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
- Students will analyze and graph the data they have collected.
- Examples of graphs include bar graphs illustrating the gravitational potential energy, the kinetic energy, and the total energy of each ball/marble at the top and bottom of the incline and the momentum of each ball/marble and storage container as well as the total momentum before and after their collision.
- Then, they will prepare group presentations to present their findings to their peers.
- In the end, they will prepare individual lab reports and answer the lab questions.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
The students will present their findings to their peers by way of an oral group presentation and complete a lab report and lab questions on this investigation.
Students will complete a lab report using a format such as the one provided, which has been taken from Miami-Dade Public Schools' Division of Mathematics and Science Education:
Lab reports will be evaluated using the following rubric which has been taken from Miami-Dade Public Schools' Division of Mathematics and Science Education:
Students will answer the following post-lab questions:
The following answer key may be used to evaluate the post-lab question responses:
Initially, the students will complete a KWL activity in their journals.
- In the first column, they will list what they know about kinetic and potential energies, momentum, and the Laws of Conservation of Energy and Momentum.
- In a second column, they will list what they want to learn about these topics.
- In a third column, which will be completed at the end of the activity, the students will list what they have learned about these topics.
A class discussion will then occur in order to clarify any misconceptions students have regarding these topics a provide them with enough background information to complete the upcoming investigation.
The students will then be assigned the task of designing an experiment to test the Law of Conservation of Energy and the Law of Conservation of Momentum.
Each group will be provided with textbooks, a ruler with a groove down the center, a measuring tape, a stopwatch, a 0.14 liter mini-storage container, a golf ball, a marble, a rubber ball, a steel ball, and 15 pennies.
They will be then work cooperatively to discuss, revise, and implement their ideas. While the students are doing this, the teacher will walk around the classroom and provide each group with any guidance they might require.
Guidance will focus on utilizing the materials that are being provided to vary initial gravitational potential energy and mass and to then observe the effects upon velocity, kinetic energy, and momentum. The teacher should also ensure that the students only have one independent variable in any investigation they may perform.
Feedback to Students
The intent of the lab is to allow for as much student inquiry as possible. However, the teacher will be monitoring student performance and provide guidance as needed. Additionally, observations made and data collected within individual groups will provide the students with significant feedback as to their performance and understanding of the concepts being addressed. In this way, both peer and teacher feedback will be instrumental as the students revise and expand upon their initial ideas. Upon completion of the investigation, each group will be required to provide a brief oral presentation delineating the strategies they employed, their results, and their conclusions.