Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
- Before students complete the writing assignment in the summative assessment, review the responses to the text-dependent questions they completed earlier. Make sure the misconceptions are corrected and the key points (as found in the sample answer key) are discussed.
- After students' written responses for the summative assessment have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. Students who are struggling writers can benefit greatly from seeing a detailed written response. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or with an LCD projector and discuss some of the following:
- How the topic is introduced in the opening sentences of the introductory paragraph; have students identify the main point of the piece. Brainstorm with students other ways the writer could have opened the piece.
- Have students examine each of the body paragraphs and explain how each supports the main point of the piece.
- Have students identify where the writer effectively uses textual evidence from the article for support of his or her points.
- Have students identify the use of transition words or phrases that make the ideas flow.
- Ask students to identify where domain-specific vocabulary is used accurately and effectively.
- Have students read the final paragraph to see how the writer wrapped up the piece and connected back to the main point established in the introduction.
At the end of the lesson, have students rewatch all or part of the National Geographic they viewed in the teaching phase of the lesson again and answer the following prompt:
- The NSF article "Rabies Could Spread to Peru's Coast by 2020" and the National Geographic video "Why We Need to Change How We Combat Rabies" both discuss why current practices are not effective in preventing the spread of rabies. The effectiveness of controlling the spread of the virus is important for the people of Peru in order to prevent human infection and prevent economic loss. Explain why the current methods being used to control rabies are considered ineffective.
The effect of rabies on a global scale is staggering. One person dies from the disease every 15 minutes, and another 300 are exposed in this time. An estimated 50,000-60,000 people are dying per year from this virus. There have been great strides in controlling the virus, including vaccinations for domestic animals and also wild animals. One of the common carriers of the virus is the vampire bat; it has largely been ignored in the research field to this point but is now responsible for many of the rabies cases in South America. Scientists are now looking at the ecology and biology of the bat to explore effective methods of control.
The increased presence of livestock is one of the reasons the rabies virus is becoming more prevalent in Peru and is resulting in the increased numbers of livestock and human deaths. Controlling the virus has become a concern for public health officials as they prepare for future outbreaks. Areas where the virus had not been seen before now show its presence. The current method of control is to reduce the size of the colony by killing or culling bats. Some of the methods include setting the caves on fire where bats live, using thorn-lined nets to capture and kill the bats, and placing poison on bats to bring back to their colony.
Despite these efforts, rabies is still spreading. Simply killing the bats is not taking into account the nature of the disease as well as behavior of the bats. Often, once an outbreak has occurred, the virus has already spread from that colony to another location. By killing the remaining bats, many of the immune bats are killed as well, which makes the colony susceptible to the virus again. When bats have rabies, their social behaviors change so they might not interact with the other members of the colony. Finally, the movement of bats from colony to colony cannot necessarily be controlled, so there is no way of knowing when and what bat brought the virus to a colony.
Researchers have begun to develop ideas and methods to control the spread of rabies, but there is no guarantee they will work. By studying and forecasting the spread of the virus, there is at least the opportunity to warn communities and farmers of the arrival of the disease.