Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Identify the impacts of both zinc and copper on the human body
- Outline current research on the prevention of diseases linked to metal levels in the human body
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of the text
- Determine the meaning of selected academic and domain-specific words in the text
- Provide an accurate summary of each section of the text
- Construct a written response that clearly establishes the main point(s), contains relevant textual evidence to support the main point, utilizes transitions to maintain flow, effectively uses domain-specific vocabulary, and provides an appropriate conclusion
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
In regards to science:
- General familiarity with the periodic table and elements would be beneficial to students. This offers a comprehensive and simple overview of the periodic table.
- General familiarity with the diseases and illnesses mentioned in the article. While not essential for comprehension of the basic points of the text, prior knowledge may make reading easier. These are included on the note-taking guide (Note: The CDC website offers many details about each illness mentioned in the article.)
- General familiarity with the human body would be beneficial. There are references to the immune, nervous, and circulatory systems.
In regards to literacy skills:
- Students should have prior experience utilizing various vocabulary strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words in a text. For this lesson, prior experience in using context clues to determine the meaning of words in a text would be beneficial, as will prior use of dictionary skills.
- Students should understand the term “central idea” and be able to distinguish central ideas from key details.
- “Central idea” means the same thing as “main idea.” The central idea is the author’s main point about the topic or topics in a text. The central ideas are the dominant, most important, or chief ideas that emerge from all the ideas presented in a text. Students should be aware that the author can have several main points he or she wants to make about the topic or topics in a piece of writing, and as a result, there can be multiple central ideas in a text, especially in longer more complex pieces.
- Students should be aware of text features that can help them locate and learn information when reading a text. The text features in NIH’s metals article include: title, headings, one photograph and caption.
- Based on the rubric provided with this lesson, students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), a body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and includes relevant and specific textual evidence, and a conclusion that supports the main point(s).
- Students should have some awareness that use of transition words or phrases can help a piece of writing flow smoothly from one point or idea to the next. Teachers might wish to provide students with a sheet of transitions to help them. This site provides transitions teachers might provide.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
Main investigation questions: While students are reading and answering questions about the article, please use the questions below to help guide students’ thinking:
1. How are metals important to the human body in general?
They support vital functions such as respiration, circulation, and reproduction.
2. How can metals cause harm to the human body?
When many types of metals occur in the wrong concentrations within the body they can damage the same vital functions they support at the the correct levels and are also linked to many diseases.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
1. If you feel your students could benefit from a general review of the periodic table, begin the lesson by showing this titled "The Periodic Table: Crash Course Chemistry #4" (11:21, uploaded by YouTube user CrashCourse) of the history of the periodic table. (Please preview the video before showing to students. It is comical and entertaining, but the teacher should decide whether it is appropriate to show to students).
2. Ask students to generate a list of elements from the periodic table that are found within the human body. Write down the class-generated list on a white board or piece of poster paper for the class to see. Students are likely to name at least some of the basic organic elements (oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen and carbon) but will probably not be able to generate a complete list of nutritional elements.
3. When the class has generated a complete list, show the following image to the class and and tell students that there are a number of elements, including metals, that are necessary for human health.
4. Now ask students how humans get the above elements into their bodies (respiration, nutrition, skin absorption, etc.) and if it is possible for humans to have too much of any of these elements. If the answer is not clear, allow students to brainstorm and discuss, but make sure to highlight the point that while vital for our health, many of these elements can be toxic in the wrong dose. Use the example of water, which is essential for all life, but can be fatal in excess amounts! Hyponatremia is very serious, and it can occur when too much water is ingested in a short time, causing sodium (another dietary element!) in the body to drop too low.
5. Explain to students that many elements can cause health problems and disease when a person is either deficient or ingests too much. Inform students that they will be reading an article on the positive and negative effects of some elemental metals (copper and zinc in particular) on the body.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
1. Provide each student with a copy of the article "Metals: In Sickness and In Health." They should number each section of the article. (Section 1 is an introduction to various metals and their impact on health, section 2- "Zinc Imbalance," section 3- "Chaperoning Copper").
2. Provide each student with a note-taking guide.
3. Before students begin reading, direct them to pay attention to the text features of the article to help them learn and locate information:
- Title: Metals: In Sickness and In Health
- Headings: Zinc Imbalance, Chaperoning Copper
- Caption: Located under the opening image
4. Have students fill out the note-taking guide as they read the text. This can be done individually, in pairs, or in a small group. The teacher should monitor students as they work and provide support and guidance as needed.
- Note: Based on the needs and skills of the students, teachers can decrease the number of academic or domain-specific vocabulary students will define on the note-taking guide.
- For academic vocabulary, students will likely be able to use a variety of vocabulary strategies to define the meaning of the words. For domain-specific (in other words, subject-specific) vocabulary, students will typically need to draw on prior knowledge and use a dictionary to define the words.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' completed note-taking guide, checking their work, providing written feedback, or grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers can use this sample answer key to help them assess students' answers.
3. For discussion on students' answers to the defined vocabulary words, teachers are encouraged to not only ask students to explain the meaning they determined for a word, but the strategy they used to arrive at that meaning. This will allow the teacher to provide alternative suggestions as to how the student could have arrived at the correct meaning of the word.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
Students may be confused about how nutrient metals end up in our bodies. It may be helpful to list the ways we can obtain these nutrients, (nutrition, cookware, vitamins, etc.) including sharing examples of some common foods that have high levels of copper and zinc. website has a lot of information on the topic!
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for understanding?):
1. Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
2. Teachers can use this sample answer key to help them assess students' answers.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: Please see the text-dependent questions sample answer key.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
1. Before students complete the writing prompt:
- Be sure to review responses to the text-dependent questions as a class, including covering the misconceptions and key points described in the sample answer key.
2. After students' written responses for the summative assessment have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. Students who are struggling writers can benefit from seeing a well-organized, detailed written response. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or with an LCD projector and discuss some of the following:
- Have students examine how the topic is introduced in the opening sentences of the introductory paragraph. (Students often struggle with ideas in how to start a written response, and they often want to repeat the prompt back in the first sentence because they are not sure what other options they have. Go over how this writer opened his or her piece of writing. Brainstorm with students other ways the writer could have opened the piece.)
- Point out the use of some textual evidence throughout each paragraph, evidence that helps support the paper's main point.
- Ask students to identify the accurate use of some domain-specific vocabulary throughout the response (e.g., respiration, circulation, reproduction, zinc, copper, immune response, nervous system, genes, proteins, hippocampus, cells, platinum).
3. This following titled "Personal Stories about Wilson Disease" (3:46, uploaded by YouTube user Wilson Tx) might be an interesting way to close the lesson.
1. Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response, with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion. They can refer back to the text as they construct their response.
2. Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over the rubric with them so they will know how their written response will be assessed.
3. Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address.
The prompt: The elements are essential to all life on Earth and through this article, it is evident that these elements, specifically metals, can have negative and positive effects on the human body. Focusing on the elements zinc and copper, describe these effects on the human body. Provide evidence from the article to support your descriptions.
4. Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses.
Specific suggestions for conducting the Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson.
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for providing Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond."