LAFS.910.WHST.1.2

Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
  1. Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  3. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 910
Strand: Writing Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
Idea: Level 4: Extended Thinking &Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved

Related Courses

This benchmark is part of these courses.
2001350: Astronomy Solar/Galactic (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000310: Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000320: Biology 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000430: Biology Technology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000370: Botany (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003350: Chemistry 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2001310: Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2001320: Earth/Space Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000380: Ecology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002480: Forensic Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002490: Forensic Sciences 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002400: Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002410: Integrated Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002420: Integrated Science 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002430: Integrated Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000390: Limnology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2003310: Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003320: Physical Science Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003600: Principles of Technology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003610: Principles of Technology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2002550: Solar Energy 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2002330: Space Technology and Engineering (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2000410: Zoology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002340: Experimental Science 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002350: Experimental Science 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2101300: Anthropology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2120710: Anthropology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100340: African-American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100350: Florida History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100360: Latin American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100370: Eastern and Western Heritage (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100380: Visions and Their Pursuits:An American Tradition-U.S.History to 1920 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100400: The History of The Vietnam War (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100470: Visions & Their Pursuits:An AmerTrad-U.S. Hist to 1920 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2102800: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Comparative Economics With Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2103300: World Cultural Geography (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104300: Introduction to the Social Sciences (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104320: Global Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104330: Voluntary School/Community Service (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104340: Women's Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104600: Multicultural Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2105310: World Religions (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2105340: Philosophy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2105350: Ethics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2120910: Philosophy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2120915: Philosophy Honors 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106330: Civics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019 (course terminated))
2106340: Political Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106350: Law Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106355: International Law (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106360: Comparative Political Systems (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106370: Comprehensive Law Studies (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106375: Comprehensive Law Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106380: Legal Systems and Concepts (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106390: Court Procedures (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106400: Court Procedures Intern (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2021 (course terminated))
2106440: International Relations (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106445: International Relations 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106468: Constitutional Law Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate United States Government (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2107300: Psychology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2107310: Psychology 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2108300: Sociology (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109310: World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109320: World History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109330: African History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109350: Contemporary History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109410: Jewish History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109430: Holocaust (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109810: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0700300: Haitian Creole for Haitian Creole Speakers 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0700310: Haitian Creole for Haitian Creole Speakers 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0701320: French 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0701330: French 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0701800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate French 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0701810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate French 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0702320: German 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0702330: German 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0702800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate German 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0702810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate German 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0703320: Greek 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0703330: Greek 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0703380: Classical Greek 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019 (course terminated))
0703390: Classical Greek 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019 (course terminated))
0704300: Hebrew 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0704310: Hebrew 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0705320: Italian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0705330: Italian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0706300: Latin 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0706310: Latin 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0706800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Latin 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0706810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Latin 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0707300: Russian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0707310: Russian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0707800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Russian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
0707810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Russian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
0708340: Spanish 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0708350: Spanish 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0709300: Spanish for Spanish Speakers 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0709310: Spanish for Spanish Speakers 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0710300: Arabic 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0710310: Arabic 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0711300: Chinese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0711310: Chinese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0900310: Humanities 1 (to 1500) Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0900320: Humanities 2 (since 1500) Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0712300: Japanese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0712310: Japanese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0712810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Japanese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0712820: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Japanese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0713300: Portuguese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0713310: Portuguese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0713340: Portuguese for Portuguese Speakers 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0713350: Portuguese for Portuguese Speakers 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0714300: Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0714310: Foreign Language Humanities for International Studies 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0717300: American Sign Language 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0717310: American Sign Language 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7920015: Access Biology 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920020: Access Earth/Space Science (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7920025: Access Integrated Science 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2109315: World History for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2105355: Philosophy Honors: Ethics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000315: Biology 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2000500: Bioscience 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2002405: Integrated Science 1 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2002425: Integrated Science 2 for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
0711800: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Mandarin Chinese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0711810: Florida’s Preinternational Baccalaureate Mandarin Chinese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0708800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Spanish 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0708810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Spanish 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0705390: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Italian 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0705391: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Italian 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0716300: Turkish 1 - Novice Low – Novice High (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0716310: Turkish 2 - Intermediate Low – Intermediate Mid (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0715305: Language and Literature for International Studies 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0715315: Language and Literature for International Studies 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7921035: Fundamental United States History (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7921040: Fundamental Economics (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7921045: Fundamental United States Government (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7921030: Fundamental World History (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
0713800: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Portuguese 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
0713810: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Portuguese 2 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7921042: Fundamental Economics with Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
2100460: Eastern and Western Heritage Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017, 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0900305: Humanities 1 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7921027: Access World History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
0900315: Humanities 2 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020, 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100335: African-American History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0719300: Creek 1 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
0720300: Elaponke 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100336: African-American History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100405: Holocaust History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100365: African History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003836: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Physics 1 (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2003838: Florida's Preinternational Baccalaureate Physics 2 (Specifically in versions: 2015 and beyond (current))
7920022: Access Physical Science (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2001330: Meteorology Honors (Specifically in versions: 2016 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100345: Great Men and Women of Color Who Shaped World History (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104310: Examining the African American Experience in the 20th Century (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106410: Humane Letters 1 History (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005345: Humane Letters 1 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005346: Humane Letters 1 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005347: Humane Letters 2 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005348: Humane Letters 2 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109342: Humane Letters 2 History (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2109343: Humane Letters 2 History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Ethical Colonization?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses ethical issues that may arise when humans eventually travel to and colonize other planets, especially Mars. The article anticipates many of the concerns that will need to be addressed as space colonization becomes more of a reality. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Say Cheese! Do You Have a Genetic Disease?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how biotechnology is being used to identify genetic conditions with a phone app that gathers data from a photo to generate a list of possible genetic conditions. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Many Thrive If the Wolf Survives:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the interactions of many different species of organisms in Yellowstone National Park. Specifically, the text focuses on the importance of not only the interactions that wolves have with the ecosystem, but how important beavers are to the stability of the whole ecosystem. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

What's Your Type?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area.The article explains the advancements that scientists have made in understanding blood types. By reading and synthesizing the text, students will explore a real-world example of how scientific knowledge becomes more robust and durable through investigations. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Helpful Herbivores:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that explains how a smaller species of organisms are filling a niche of larger organisms that have been reduced due to overfishing and disease. These smaller organisms have been shown to reduce algal communities that can lead to the destruction of crucial coral reefs. This discovery may have large, beneficial impacts on endangered coral communities around the world. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes use of a seed discussion organizer, a vocabulary handout, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, sample answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Modeling Moon Craters:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that highlights current research on high impact craters on the moon. Scientists have been studying the largest impact basins on the moon, such as the Orientale basin. Until now, how impact craters with rings form had not been well understood, but scientists have modeled Orientale's formation using data from NASA's GRAIL mission. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a vocabulary guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

ComBATing Extinction:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how Caribbean bat species are uniquely suited for studying the consequences of extinction. By reading this article, students will get a better understanding of geographic isolation and speciation, which are major themes when discussing the theory of evolution. In addition, students will gain an understanding of the devastating effects human impact can have on populations of species.

Type: Lesson Plan

Will We See More White Nose Syndrome in Bats?:

In this lesson, students will read an informational text that discusses the spread of White Nose Syndrome in North American bats and how bat colonies are being affected in both size and number. The article also provides a comparison between European and North American bat colonies suffering with this disease. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, and answer keys.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bad News for Starfish:

In this lesson plan, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The National Science Foundation article discusses research on the effects of the Sea Star Associated Densovirus, a virus devastating sea star populations. The article further explains the implication of the virus for the tidal ecosystems of the Pacific West Coast. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Importance of a Baboon's Birthday:

In this lesson, students will read an article from the National Science Foundation that discusses how a drought affected the savannas of southern Kenya during 2009. It further addresses how baboons are affected later in life based on when they are born and the social status they are born into. Based on the research on baboons, the implications on human health are also discussed in the latter portion of the article. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Loss of Sea Ice Leaves Polar Bears in the Cold:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article showcases recent research into the declining Arctic sea ice and its effect on polar bear populations. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bee Faithful! :

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses a study that confirms the impact of removing just one bumblebee species from an ecosystem. The text describes how removing just one bumblebee species from an ecosystem causes less effective pollination and lower seed production. Bumblebees, as most bees do, stick with one species of flower until it's finished blooming. Scientists have found that when one bee species is removed it causes the remaining bee species to "cheat" on their original flower species. This causes a decrease in pollination and in seed production. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Forests of the Living Dead:

In this lesson, students will read a National Science Foundation article that discusses a 200-year study into the mortality of forests. The process of decomposition and the importance of decaying wood in a forest are explained in great detail. The research described has altered and changed the management plans for forest ecosystems worldwide.

This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. It includes a note-taking guide, a vocabulary guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking for the Loris:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the research and efforts by scientists to save the slow loris from extinction. It discusses the complexity of conservation today and details how there are many different layers that need to be addressed on this issue. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mutualistic Mussels:

In this lesson, students will read an article from the National Science Foundation that discusses how extended droughts have affected salt marsh ecosystems found in the Southeastern part of the United States. The article then describes the mutualistic relationship that was discovered between ribbed mussels and salt marsh grasses and how this relationship is helping the marshes survive and recover from the droughts. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mercury Levels are Rising!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses a new method for measuring the amount of mercury in the environment that is formed as a byproduct of human activities. The text describes how scientists were able to develop a method for measuring mercury by using data about phosphate and carbon dioxide levels. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

This Dinosaur Can't Sing:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article presents new research that suggests dinosaurs were not able to vocalize or "sing" in a way similar to modern birds. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Killer Prairie Dogs:

In this lesson, students will analyze an  intended to support reading in the content area.  The National Geographic article profiles the scientists who discovered that the white-tailed prairie dog is killing ground squirrels in order to eliminate its competition for food. The article further highlights how the squirrel killings benefit the prairie dogs' offspring.  The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. 

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Wiping Out Invasive Predators in New Zealand:

In this lesson, students will read an article from National Geographic that discusses the plan of the New Zealand government to eliminate invasive predators from the country by 2050. The article further goes on to discuss the effects the predators have had on the native wildlife. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a vocabulary handout, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. 

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Humans vs. the Superbug:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article addresses how the United States is addressing the discovery of E.coli that is resistant to colistin, an antibiotic used only as a last resort. The text describes steps to take now that this superbug has reached our country. Scientists from the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine explain why it is so easy for bacteria to share their "knowledge" about antibiotic resistance and discuss how concerned the U.S. citizens should be, as well as what we can do to slow the spread of superbugs.

Type: Lesson Plan

Mosquitoes in Miami:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The National Geographic article discusses the problems facing Miami Beach as health officials try to execute a mosquito management program to combat Zika. Because of the high rise buildings, the pesticides being sprayed are not reaching the intended areas. Another concern is that mosquitoes may become resistant to the first choice pesticides being used against them. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Discovering New Kiwis:

In this lesson plan, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses research that proves there are more species and subspecies of kiwi birds than originally thought in New Zealand. The article discusses how scientists believe glaciers isolated kiwi populations. As a result, new genetic lineages were discovered by analyzing the kiwi genome.

Type: Lesson Plan

El Niño Can Spread Disease:

In this lesson plan, students analyze an  intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses new research conducted by scientists showing the correlation between El Niño events and the spread of waterborne infectious diseases. The article discusses how the scientists believe Vibrio bacteria are being transported across the ocean during El Niño events, and it discusses the impact this can have on public health. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Precision Agriculture Eliminates Over-Fertilizing:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article addresses an innovative way to determine the age of the nitrogen in corn and soybean fields. Determining nitrogen's age could help make agriculture more precise, because when farmers over-fertilize their fields, the excess can leak into water supplies. Research scientists from the University of Illinois believe they can use this new technology to identify areas that are specifically deficient in nitrogen and therefore eliminate the need to apply it uniformly. This would benefit agriculture and the environment. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Transport of Invasive Species:

In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes the effects the Panama Canal expansion may have on the number of invasive species introduced to the East Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States. The article explains how ballast water and wet surface areas are the two ways the invasive species can travel from port to port. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Heart Disease: Are You at Risk?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text by the National Institutes of Health that addresses the risk factors for heart disease. The text is broken into three areas: risk factors that can be controlled (like smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity), risk factors that cannot be controlled (like age and family history), and emerging risk factors. This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Penguins in Peril:

In this lesson, students will analyze an from National Geographic designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses research conducted on the status of the Adelie Penguin population in Antarctica and what might happen to this species by the end of the century. Using statistical models, researchers looked at past and current data and used future climate projections to determine the fate of the Adelie's habitat. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Antibiotic Resistant Wildlife?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article addresses the possibility that antibiotic resistance is spreading through ecosystems in Botswana because resistance in humans has been shared with many other organisms. Researchers found that antibiotic resistance is significantly higher in water-associated species and carnivores. Scientists believe they can use this information to increase their understanding of why and how species are becoming antibiotic-resistant, with the end goal of stopping the spread of antibiotic resistance in humans. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Termites to the Rescue!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text from the National Science Foundation that discusses how termites in semi-arid ecosystems are preventing the process of desertification in these areas. The article also describes how and why scientific models are being used in this research. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Helping the Honey Bee!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an article that discusses the problem of declining honey bee populations in the United States and lists the possible factors involved. The text then describes the study on African honey bees to determine if there are genetic or physiological causes in their positive response to the Varroa parasite. Researchers are hoping the data they gather will help them improve breeding programs or management practices in U.S. bee populations. This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Mapping the Milky Way's Dust:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses how scientists are mapping the dust of the Milky Way. The text describes how interstellar dust can tell astronomers where stars and planets are forming, where a supernova could have occurred and provide other clues to the history of our galaxy and its formation. Using a newly created 3-D mapping tool, astronomers hope to integrate data from this tool with data from other sources in order to learn more about our galaxy than ever before. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Leptospirosis: A Serious Disease:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The NSF article describes current research into the transmission of the bacterial disease leptospirosis, with the ultimate goal of using the research to prevent future outbreaks. The article highlights the environmental conditions that increase the transmission of the disease. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions with an answer key, a writing prompt with a sample response, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bird Migration: A Risky Business:

In this lesson plan, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area.  The article reports new findings on bird migration patterns. Recent research points to migratory birds conducting a "risk assessment" based on factors like weather and their own amount of body fat. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Far From Home: NASA's Year in Space Mission:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that presents information on a year-long space mission aboard the International Space Station. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the mission of studying the long-term effects of microgravity on human health. Astronaut Scott Kelley and Cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko were used in the year-long study, along with Kelly's identical twin brother, Mark Kelly, who remained on Earth and was used as a control subject. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Making Weather Forecasting More Reliable through MADIS:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses a weather data assimilation system for forecasting weather. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes what weather data is used with this system, where it’s coming from, and who can use it. The lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

A Hole in the Ozone:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article informs readers about the ozone layer and why it was larger and lasted longer in 2015 than in previous years. Although it was unusually large, the practices that have been followed since the Montreal Protocol was enacted have actually resulted in a long-term decrease in the size of the ozone hole. The text explains the aberration and also provides general information about the ozone layer and its function in protecting human life. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Evolution and Natural Selection at the Top of the World :

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text addressing two issues, climate change and evolution. This informational text (designed to support reading in the content area) describes how the changing climate in the Arctic is contributing to evolutionary changing in populations of animals that live there. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric along with ideas for extending the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Exploring the Heart of the Atom:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains the strides scientists at Jefferson Lab are making toward revising our view of the atom via an upgrade to their CEBAF particle accelerator. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Link to Evolution:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that presents the major discovery of a nearly-intact cranial fossil of an ancient mammal from the Southern Hemisphere. The article discusses the significance of the discovery of this previously unknown mammal, a mammal scientists have named Vintana sertichi. This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. 

Type: Lesson Plan

Humans: The Leading Cause of Extinction:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text selected to support reading in the content area. The article describes how wildlife is impacted by natural events and by humans, focusing on scientific data gathered in the Caribbean (specifically Abaco Island). It explains how humans impact the populations of species in ecosystems and why it is important for people to understand these interactions. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Major Meltdown: Colorado High Peaks Losing Glaciers:

This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will read a text that describes the results of a long-term study of the changes in the crysophere on Niwot Ridge, which lies at the top of the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains. The text describes the ways in which the cryosphere has changed due to climate change, and it also describes some of the impacts on the ecosystem and explains how the researchers gathered their data. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, sample answers, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Size Does Matter: Brain Size in Mammalian Carnivores:

This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that describes a recent experiment that helps to prove that larger brain size could indicate higher intelligence within carnivorous mammals. The research was conducted at nine U.S. zoos and included 140 animals from 39 mammalian carnivore species. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, sample answers, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide:

In this lesson, students will read and analyze an informational text designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes the rise of carbon dioxide in Earth's atmosphere and its likely effects on the planet, including climate change and ocean acidification. The contains an interactive graph that supports the text.

Type: Lesson Plan

Flexing Their Mussels:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text examining scientists' studies of freshwater mussels in an attempt to develop methods for saving threatened species. Students will learn of the researchers' hope to be able to use other species that cohabitate local ecosystems to restore the threatened species. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Phosphorus: Fertilizer of the Sea:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The text explains how scientists worked with the National Science Foundation (NSF) to try and better understand the phosphorus cycle in marine ecosystems. The author points out that although the phosphorus cycle has been studied in the past, the work chronicled in the article has greatly expanded that understanding. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Effect of Seasonal Variation, Due to Climate Change, on Grasslands:

In this lesson, students will examine how ecosystems change due to seasonal variations as they analyze an informational text explaining the process scientists used to collect data on daily changes in grasslands. Students will learn of the usefulness of this data in creating a model that allowed the scientists to predict how seasonal variation will change the grassland ecosystem. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Where's the Rain? Researching Drier Climates in the Southwest:

This lesson plan is designed to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will read a text that describes a study on the climate of the American Southwest. Using 35 years' worth of data, scientists believe a subtle shift in weather patterns is leading to drier conditions in the Southwest. The text goes on to explain the significance of this research and the challenge of connecting drier conditions in the region to climate change. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, sample answers, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Empowering Zanzibar to Defeat Malaria:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text describing how one woman, Habiba, earned the title as "Zanzibar's Malaria Hunter." Habiba is one of many surveillance officers working to track, test, treat and educate the public to prevent the spread of malaria. Surveillance officers like Habiba, are helping the PMI (US President's Malaria Initiative) and the Zanzibar Malaria Elimination Program quickly respond to cases of malaria, report the data and eradicate the disease from the archipelago. "The prevalence of malaria in Zanzibar has been reduced from 25 percent in 2005 to less than 1 percent today."

The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt/scoring rubric, and answer keys.

Type: Lesson Plan

Seeking the Zika Virus:

In this lesson, students will read an informational text from the National Science Foundation. The text describes current research into the mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus, with the ultimate goal of using the research to predict and possibly prevent future outbreaks. Scientists are studying three towns in Ecuador by collecting data to help them discover the socioeconomic and environmental factors that put people most at risk for diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, including the Zika virus. The scientists are also examining how virus transmission by these mosquitoes may be affected by climate change. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes text-dependent questions with an answer key, a writing prompt with a sample response, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

It's the Circle of Life...and Water:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article analyzes the hydrologic cycle and touches on its connection to the carbon cycle. This text describes how our understanding about the water cycle has changed over time, particularly due to information gathered in a recent study. The article gives a good representation of the scientific method and the importance of the water cycle. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Everyday Mysteries: Why Do We Yawn?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that seeks to answer the question "Why do we yawn?" Students will learn that while many claims regarding the social and physiological functions of yawning have been presented from Hippocrates, 17th and 18th century scientists, and experts today, scientists have yet to reach a consensus about the answer to the title question. All the while, this frequent challenge and re-examination of scientific claims helps to strengthen scientific knowledge. This lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric, as well as options to extend the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

When North Becomes South:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how the National Science Foundation (NSF) is using some of their ships and equipment to study the magnetic properties of the ocean floor. The data they collect will help them better understand the phenomenon known as geomagnetic reversal. The article also includes a brief explanation of what geomagnetic reversal is. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Bioluminescent Millipedes Spark Bright Ideas!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text by scientist Paul Marek, who re-charted the millipede Motyxia Bistipida's evolutionary tree based on new information about its bioluminescence. This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Numerous options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Investigating Rulers of the Reef: Coral Reef Parasites :

This lesson uses an NSF article to inform the reader about the influence of parasites on damselfish, a coral reef species. The author explains how his team determined the reason for the consistent behavior of damselfish leaving their aggressively guarded territory each morning to go to a cleaning station. He also explains how more questions arose throughout his investigation, questions like "Do these parasites carry other parasites that infect fishes?" and "Do these gnathiid parasites infect other species of fish?" This first-person account creates an interesting view of how marine research is done, including field work, lab work, and collaborating with other scientists. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Innovative Methods: Using Drones to Study Glaciers:

In this lesson, students will read a text that describes new and creative technologies that are being used in climate research to study high-altitude glaciers and map how they are changing. The text describes the ways in which the use of drones with time-lapse thermal camera systems are being used to gather data over the Peruvian Andes more effectively than satellites or planes. The text also describes some of the researchers' early findings based on the data they have gathered through the use of these drones. The text used in this lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions and a writing prompt, sample answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Buried in Ash: New Revelations of an Ancient Culture:

In this lesson, students read a non-fiction text as they learn of the artifacts unearthed from the remains of a Salvadoran village preserved in volcanic ash much like Pompeii. Students will discover how researchers piece together evidence to determine the significance the artifacts reveal in illustrating the daily lives of this ancient people. As students come to understand the researchers use the artifacts to infer religious, cultural and economic aspects of the Ceren village, they will answer text-dependent questions and compose a multi-paragraph writing response (sample answer keys included) asking students to describe the power of this natural disaster to destroy this ancient culture yet preserve its details for future generations to learn from.

Type: Lesson Plan

How El Niño and La Niña Affect the Weather:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. In this lesson, students will analyze a text that addresses the weather patterns of El Niño and La Niña and their effect on the varying ocean temperatures in the Pacific Ocean. The text describes the type of weather each produces over North America while explaining the differences between the two. This lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. Options to extend the lesson are also included.

Type: Lesson Plan

Macromolecule Snack Attack:

In this MEA, students will be introduced to the four biological macromolecules through common snack foods found in vending machines. They will act as dietitians selecting and ranking snack foods based on given their nutrition labels and knowledge of the structure and function of the four biological macromolecules.

Type: Lesson Plan

Looking for the best Employment Option:

Students will reaffirm their knowledge about linear equations. Will be able to apply the concept to real life situations.

Type: Lesson Plan

The Friendly Confines or The Nat - who has the best ballpark?:

Students will use basic arithmetic, simple functions, averages, and possibly weighted averages to rank 6 Major League Baseball Parks by home field advantage. Students will write a description of their process using correct terminology and appropriate tone.

Type: Lesson Plan

Magnificent Microscope Tradeoffs MEA:

Students will learn about the four types of microscopes (compound, dissection, transmission electron, and scanning electron) and compare them using the Model Eliciting Activity, or MEA, approach. Students act as a materials selection committee who will help a teacher decide which type(s) of microscopes are best suited for his classroom.

Type: Lesson Plan

Sustainability and Tourism Location MEA:

This MEA gives the students an opportunity to learn about sustainability and then apply that knowledge to help EcoAthletica determine the location for their next sustainable tourism resort. The students will use a variety of criteria and the definition of sustainability and sustainable tourism to create a model for choosing locations.

Type: Lesson Plan

Marketing for the National Blood Pressure Association:

This MEA supports reading in the content area. Students create a model that the client can use to rank treatments for hypertension (high blood pressure) to choose the subject of their marketing campaign.

Type: Lesson Plan

Parker County Public Works Project:

Have you ever considered what sort of discussion is done before deciding to build a water park or hospital in your town or county? What about the roads? The schools? This resource is a valuable tool in teaching students about the importance of developing a thought process and about the value in public works. The students will be conducting an MEA that revolves around the premise of deciding on what is the most important public works project for Parker County, FL.

Type: Lesson Plan

Picturing World Wars: The Great War & The Greatest Generation at War:

This 3-day lesson focuses on helping students analyze propaganda posters from both world wars to better understand how the U.S. government used propaganda to acquire civilian support. Students will analyze the images and phrases used in the posters, the purpose for each poster, any biases exhibited, and even generate questions about each poster that can be used for additional research. Through analysis of the posters students will be introduced to some of the challenges America faced by going to war. For the end of lesson assessment, students will write an explanatory essay about the government's use of propaganda in these wars. The posters, graphic organizers, answer keys, and a rubric to assess student writing have been included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Analyzing French Revolution Documents:

This lesson will expose students to a collection of primary and secondary sources from the French Revolution. Students will analyze a cartoon, a letter, governing documents and charts. As a culminating assignment, students will draft a one-page long response linking the documents to the events of the French Revolution.

Type: Lesson Plan

Life of the Party:

This activity teaches students how to determine the age of an atom using an onion, cabbage, and Brussels sprouts. Aliens from another planet left these items on our planet and need our assistance determining their age. Based on the number of layers or half lives of the "elements," the students will be able to determine their age. The students will also be able to differentiate between the three types of radioactive decay and understand why radioactive elements are harmful.

Type: Lesson Plan

Can You Read My Mind?:

This engaging activity is a fun game requiring a teacher to team up with a student and provide insider information before the activity begins. The team will cleverly involve the rest of the class in a guessing game where students must apply logic and their understanding of variables to devise questions aimed at figuring out the trick, which allows the chosen student and the teacher to always know what the other is thinking! The concept of changing one variable at a time is critical to making progress in this game of reasoning and observation.

Type: Lesson Plan

Turning Tires Model Eliciting Activity:

The Turning Tires MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best tire material for certain situations. The main focus of the MEA is applying geometric concepts through modeling.

Type: Lesson Plan

All in the Family:

This lesson allows the students to become familiar with the elements on the periodic table. The students play a game of go fish using cards they've made from index cards. The students match the cards according to their oxidation number in a similar pattern to how the game go fish is played. The students also use the index cards to make flash cards of their elements and use the cards as a study tool. The students will learn how subatomic particles and chemical characteristics determine the placement of elements on the periodic table.

Type: Lesson Plan

Amusement Park Physics:

Students will research various types of amusement park rides and use their findings to design a feasible ride of their own. They will summarize their findings and present their ride design to the class. Each student will then write a persuasive letter to a local amusement park describing the reasons their ride design is the best.

Type: Lesson Plan

Coral Reefs Surviving Despite the Odds:

This lesson uses an article from the National Science Foundation to inform the reader about the surprising results of a study done on coral reefs in Palau. The article discusses the effects that ocean acidification normally has on coral reefs and then describes the unique situation encountered in Palau. Scientists discovered coral reefs thriving in waters with a lower pH than normal. The article discusses how scientists are unsure of why these coral reefs are thriving, but future studies could reveal the answers. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Environmental Awareness: How are Humans Impacting the Environment & What Can We Do to Help?:

In this lesson, students will examine different ways that humans are impacting ecosystems, particularly that of marine ecosystems. Links to texts on ocean pollution, oil spills, and a recent molasses spill in Honolulu Harbor are provided. Graphic organizers for students and possible answer keys to assist teachers have been included for the first two articles. Later in the lesson, students will conduct a Jigsaw activity as they learn about different ways they can help protect the environment. The summative assessment will have students conducting an explanatory writing task that will require them to synthesize what they have learned throughout the lesson. A structured rubric for grading is included. Links to additional articles on environmental topics, links to collections of articles, and ideas for extensions to the lesson are also provided.

Type: Lesson Plan

Invasive or Not?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that discusses new evidence regarding the status of the Arctic ground squirrel. The species was previously thought to be an invasive species on Chirikof Island off the coast of Alaska, but new evidence calls this belief into question. The lesson plan includes a vocabulary note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Overfishing Kills Reef Systems!:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text that addresses the effects of overfishing on coral reef systems. The text explains how scientists have found that overfishing removes many of the algae-eating fish, and this causes an increase in algae growth, which leads to a microbial increase, and finally leads to coral mortality. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric. 

 

Type: Lesson Plan

Pollution Evolution - A Solution?:

In this lesson, students will analyze an informational text intended to support reading in the content area. The article in this lesson describes how a species of fish has adapted to lethal levels of toxic pollutants due to their high level of genetic variation, which allows them to evolve quickly. Scientists hope to use studies of these fish to understand human reactions to environmental chemicals. This lesson includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

What's that Smell? Avoiding Peers with Parasites:

In this lesson, students will analyze two informational texts intended to support reading in the content area. The primary article discusses social behavior in mandrills that helps them know when to avoid certain individuals in their community in order to prevent becoming infected with parasites. A second related text discusses adaptations in Atlantic killifish that allow them to survive in water polluted by high levels of toxins. By reading and synthesizing both texts, students will learn about adaptations that enable survival of species. This lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4 of 4):

Practice writing different aspects of an expository essay about scientists using drones to research glaciers in Peru. This interactive tutorial is part four of a four-part series. In this final tutorial, you will learn about the elements of a body paragraph. You will also create a body paragraph with supporting evidence. Finally, you will learn about the elements of a conclusion and practice creating a “gift.” 

This tutorial is part four of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3 of 4):

Learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the third part of a four-part series. In previous tutorials in this series, students analyzed an informational text and video about scientists using drones to explore glaciers in Peru. Students also determined the central idea and key details of the text and wrote an effective summary. In part three, you'll learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay about the scientists' research. 

This tutorial is part three of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Professional Development

Branching Out: Growing Literacy Skills in Writing:

Click "View Site" to open a full-screen version.

By the end of this module, teachers should be able to:

  • Label the College and Career Readiness, also known as CCR, anchor standards for Writing
  • Explain the structure and organization of the grade-specific Writing standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science and Technical Subjects
  • Use the grade-specific Writing standards to identify what students should know and be able to do

This is Module 2 of 4 in the series, "Literacy across the Content Areas: Reading and Writing to Build Content Knowledge."

Type: Professional Development

Teaching Idea

The Birthday Paradox:

The exercise detailed in this resource poses a paradox regarding birthdays. The question raised: how large does a group have to be in order to have a 50% or better probability that two or more people in the group share the same birthday? Intuitions about probability are challenged as students use their calculators to simulate random values to represent the birthdays and reach an answer.

Type: Teaching Idea

Text Resources

When Humans Begin Colonizing Other Planets, Who Should Be in Charge?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article asks the reader to ponder the ethical issues that may arise as we travel to and colonize the rocky inner planets in our solar system. The article questions what country or organization will make the guidelines that answer these ethical questions.

Type: Text Resource

Yellowstone Ecosystem Needs Wolves and Willows, Elk and...Beavers?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the effects of the wolf population in Yellowstone National Park, as well as how other organisms are linked in this food web. As the wolf population decreases, the elk population increases due to lack of predation. The larger elk population decimates the willow population, a prime source of food and building for the beaver. As beaver population decreases, streams no longer deposit enough sediments. This then changes the willow population, because they are no longer able to take root in the stream.

Type: Text Resource

Against the Tide: Fish Quickly Adapt to Lethal Levels of Pollution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the evolution of a type of fish who can survive in a human-altered, toxic environment. The text discusses possible reasons for this successful evolution and what the implications are for other species, including humans.

Type: Text Resource

This App Uses Facial Recognition Software to Help Identify Genetic Conditions:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes a new tool (Face2Gene) that is being used by geneticists to help identify genetic disorders. The app uploads a picture and searches databases for specific facial measurements and characteristics common to specific genetic conditions. The app sends out a list of possible conditions, as well as a metric of their likelihood.

Type: Text Resource

Gut Check: Mandrills Sniff Poop to Avoid Peers with Parasites:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes a mechanism of behavioral avoidance to help maintain health between mandrills. Mandrills use their olfactory senses in order to determine which of their peers to avoid due to parasitic infections.

Type: Text Resource

Analysis of Fossilized Antarctic Bird's 'Voice Box' Suggests Dinosaurs Couldn't Sing:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have presented new findings on the fossilized voice box called a syrinx -- and its apparent absence in non-avian dinosaur fossils of the same age. This may indicate that other non-avian dinosaurs were not able to make noises similar to the bird calls we hear today.

Type: Text Resource

Polar Bears Across the Arctic Face Shorter Sea Ice Season:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Polar bears are among the animals most affected by the seasonal and year-to-year decline in Arctic sea ice, because they rely on ice for essential activities such as hunting, traveling, and breeding. A new research study has confirmed this finding.

Type: Text Resource

Born During a Drought: Bad News for Baboons:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how a drought affected the savanna ecosystem found in southern Kenya during 2009. It further addresses how baboons are affected later in life based on the conditions when they are born and the social status they are born into. Based on the research on baboons, the implications on human health are discussed in the latter portion of the article.

Type: Text Resource

Virus Fingered as Top Suspect in West Coast Sea Star Wasting Disease:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The National Science Foundation article discusses research on the identification and the effects of the Sea Star Associated Densovirus. The article further explains the importance of research on this virus because of its impact on the tidal ecosystems on the Pacific West Coast.

Type: Text Resource

Hibernation Season Over, Will Disease-Ridden Bats Emerge from Caves and Mines This Spring?:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The article discusses the spread of White Nose Syndrome in North American bats and how bat colonies are being affected in both size and number. The article also provides a comparison between European and North American bat colonies suffering with this disease.

Type: Text Resource

NASA Moon Mission Shares Insights into Giant Impacts:

This informational text resource supports reading in the content area. The GRAIL mission is a research project tasked with studying large impact basins. Orientale basin is a giant, ringed impact crater on Earth's moon. Until now, how impact craters with rings form had not been well understood. Scientists have reconstructed Orientale's formation using data from NASA's GRAIL mission.

Type: Text Resource

Caribbean Bat Species Need 8 Million Years to Recover from Recent Extinction Waves:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how Caribbean bat species are ideal for understanding the implications of extinction and its effects on species. The article suggests that the geographic isolation of these species helps scientists to understand the causes of extinction and how long species may need to recover from natural and human impact.

Type: Text Resource

Zika's Accidental Ally: Miami's Luxury High-Rises:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the problems that are being encountered in Miami Beach as health officials try to execute a mosquito management program. Because of the high rise buildings, the pesticides being sprayed are not necessarily reaching the intended areas. Not only are mosquitoes staying alive, but they may become resistant to the first-choice pesticides being used against them.

Type: Text Resource

What's Good for Crops Not Always Good for the Environment:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent development that will allow scientists to help farmers determine the precise amount of nitrogen needed for their corn and soybean fields. The research was conducted by two scientists at the University of Illinois. If farmers can pinpoint the exact amount of fertilizer needed, reducing the amount that runs off or leaches into the water supply, the better for all living organisms on Earth.

Type: Text Resource

Panama Canal: Superhighway for Invasive Species?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the effects the Panama Canal expansion may have on the number of invasive species introduced to the East Coast and Gulf Coast of the United States. The article explains how ballast water and wet surface areas are the two ways the invasive species can travel from port to port.

Type: Text Resource

Wildlife Species Provide Clues to Spread of Antibiotic Resistance in Africa:

The informational text resource describes how researchers from Virginia Tech and the University of Sydney tested for resistance to 10 antibiotics among 18 wildlife species and cattle in Botswana. The results from the tests showed that antibiotic resistance is being transferred to mostly carnivores at the top of the food web. Animals that show multi-drug resistance are crocodiles, leopards, hyenas, hippos, baboons, and warthogs. There also seems to be a correlation to drug resistance and aquatic life, but only certain species. Further research should be conducted in order to understand how the resistance moves across landscapes.

Type: Text Resource

Who Is at Risk for Heart Disease?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text, written by the National Institutes of Health, describes the many risk factors for heart disease. The text is broken into three areas: risk factors that can be controlled (like smoking, high blood pressure, and obesity), risk factors that cannot be controlled (like age and family history), and emerging risk factors.

Type: Text Resource

Dirt Mounds Made by Termites in Africa, South America, Asia Could Prevent Spread of Deserts:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the impact termite mounds are having on semi-arid ecosystems and the surprising realization that scientists have come to in regards to the effects of these termite mounds. The text also describes the importance of scientific modeling to predict plant growth while having termite mounds present.

Type: Text Resource

Protecting the Honey-Bearers:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the problem of declining honey bee populations in the United States and lists the possible factors involved. The text then describes the study on African honey bees to determine if there are genetic or physiological causes in their response to the Varroa parasite. Researchers are hoping the data they gather will help them improve breeding programs or management practices in U.S. bee populations.

Type: Text Resource

All We Are is Dust in the Interstellar Wind:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes cosmic dust and the effects it leaves on the galaxy when it comes in contact with astronomical phenomenon. The interstellar dust can cause a distortion of astrological observations, called reddening. This can cause false data being reported because, for one, color is used to determine the age of a star. The article addresses how astronomers have produced a 3-D map of interstellar reddening for three-quarters of the visible sky.

Type: Text Resource

Field Fever, Harvest Fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows: Leptospirosis by Any Name Is a Serious Disease:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research into the factors that increase the rate of transmission of the bacterial disease Leptospirosis. Scientists are using research to provide tools to prevent future transmission. Scientists are studying three communities in Chile and determining what factors in each setting are contributing to the spread of the disease.

Type: Text Resource

Ten things to know about Scott Kelly’s #YearInSpace:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes an ongoing NASA research project where astronaut Scott Kelly and cosmonaut Mikhail Kornienko are being tested for the effects of a year-long spaceflight. However, the science of their mission spans three years: one year before they left, one year in space, and another upon their return. In addition, part of the research also includes the Twin Study; Scott’s identical twin brother, and a former astronaut, served as a human control on the ground during Scott’s year-long stay in space.

Type: Text Resource

Risk Assessment, for the Birds:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Bird migration patterns have shown to be much more complex than once thought. Birds change their patterns based on a variety of factors, recent research indicates. The article refers to this as risk assessment; it includes the availability of food, strength, and even weather. The research was completed using three different species of songbird. Researchers are hoping that understanding of these patterns will help us in our conservation efforts.

Type: Text Resource

Too Much Algae—and Too Many Microbes—Threaten Coral Reefs:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes a recent study that helped researchers prove a link between overfishing to increased growth of fleshy algae to microbialization. This increase in microbes causes a depletion of the amount of oxygen dissolved in the water. In addition, the increase in microbial growth can spread disease. In conclusion, microbialization is found to be a major contributing factor to the destruction and decline of coral reef health.

Type: Text Resource

Coral Reefs Defy Ocean Acidification Odds in Palau:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses the impact that ocean acidification typically has on coral reefs in water with low pH. The text goes on to describe the surprising results of a study done on coral reefs in Palau that are thriving despite living in water with low pH. Researchers must conduct further tests to determine why this is happening, but it gives them hope that some coral reefs might be able to withstand future levels of ocean acidification.

Type: Text Resource

Annual Antarctic Ozone Hole Larger and Formed Later in 2015:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text provides information about 2015's ozone hole, showing why it is larger this year and lasted longer than previous years. The article shows how the protective ozone layer changes with the seasons and is different each year. Although the hole is large this year, the practices that have been followed since the Montreal Protocol was enacted have allowed the ozone hole to slowly decrease, and it should be back to 1980 levels by 2070.

Type: Text Resource

NOAA's Growing Weather Observations Database Goes into Full Operations:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This text describes NOAA’s new (established in 2015) weather collecting database system that is able to assimilate weather data from 64,000 different sources. This new system is usable by federal, state and local agencies, universities, and private companies to forecast and prepare for different kinds of weather.

Type: Text Resource

Environmental Pressures at the Top of the Earth Produce Evolutionary Impacts:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text presents a picture of how and why animals and people living at the Arctic will start to change (due to changing climate with melting sea ice) in order to keep surviving.

Type: Text Resource

Exploring the Heart of Matter:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Under the direction of the Department of Energy, the Jefferson Laboratory is making strides in its development of a new high-speed particle accelerator. This accelerator promises to operate at double the maximum speed of existing accelerators, and it will reveal more details about the forces which bind subatomic particles inside an atom, as well as the very nature of those particles. These discoveries will help us refine our ideas about atoms and nuclei.

Type: Text Resource

Scientists Discover Fossil of Bizarre Groundhog-Like Mammal on Madagascar:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This article describes a new research discovery of the fossil remains of a groundhog-like mammal found in Madagascar. The article details the methodology scientists employed to unearth the fossil skull and explains the insights it offers into early mammalian evolution in the Southern Hemisphere.

Type: Text Resource

Colorado High Peaks Losing Glaciers as Climate Warms:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes the results of a study that show declines in ice—glaciers, permafrost, subsurface ice, and lake ice—at the Niwot Ridge in the Rocky Mountains over the past thirty years. The text describes that the researchers attribute the declines in ice to climate change. Using the results of their study, the scientists also make a startling prediction that the Arikaree Glacier in the Rocky Mountains will disappear in twenty years.

Type: Text Resource

Ancient Fossils Show Effect of Humans on Caribbean Wildlife:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article focuses on scientific data gathered in the Caribbean (specifically Abaco Island). The authors describe how wildlife is impacted by natural events and by humans, and why it is important for people to understand these interactions.

Type: Text Resource

Do Bigger Brains Make Smarter Carnivores?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes an experiment that helps to confirm that larger brain size could indicate higher intelligence within carnivorous mammals. The experiment involved 140 animals and each was given the same task of retrieving food from a locked box within 30 minutes. The results of the test show that having a larger brain really does improve an animal’s ability to solve a problem it has never encountered before.

Type: Text Resource

In Grasslands, Longer Spring Growing Season Offsets Higher Summer Temperatures:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the process the researchers use to develop a detailed model of how they predict climate change will occur in the future and what effect this will have on North American grasslands. The author explains how climate change impacts ecosystems while also providing an example of using models in science to predict future events/outcomes.

Type: Text Resource

Genetics Provide New Hope for Endangered Freshwater Mussels:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article explains the impact of scientists’ studies on a number of freshwater mussel species and their genetic makeup. The intent of the research was to find ways of protecting threatened and endangered species of mussels. The article explains that the genetic similarities of species that cohabitate a river could lead to development of new methods of protecting mussel species.

Type: Text Resource

Revealing the Ocean's Hidden Fertilizer:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text explains how scientists are working with the National Science Foundation (NSF) to explore the role of phosphorus, and specifically the phosphorus cycle, in marine ecosystems. The author explains what is known about the topic, what research was done, what conclusions were drawn, and the importance of the scientists' findings.

Type: Text Resource

Climate Change: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article describes the possible effects on the planet due to the rise in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, especially the implications for climate change.

Type: Text Resource

Geomagnetic Reversal: Understanding Ancient Flips and Flops in Earth's Polarity:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article discusses how the National Science Foundation (NSF) has been using one of their ships to gather information which scientists can use to explore the process of geomagnetic reversal. The article explains the basic concept of geomagnetic reversal and how the information gathered can help in understanding it. Finally, the article discusses several different roles that scientists have taken on in the NSF's ongoing operations.

Type: Text Resource

Southwest Sliding into a New Normal: Drier Conditions:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes a study on the climate of the southwestern United States. Using 35 years' worth of data, scientists believe a subtle shift in weather patterns is leading to drier conditions in the Southwest. The text goes on to explain the significance of this research and the challenge of connecting drier conditions in the region to climate change.

Type: Text Resource

Seeking Zika: Where and When Will Zika-Carrying Mosquitoes Strike Next?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text describes current research into the mosquitoes that carry the Zika virus, with the ultimate goal of using the research to predict and possibly prevent future outbreaks. Scientists are studying three towns in Ecuador by collecting data to help them discover the socioeconomic and environmental factors that put people most at risk for diseases carried by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, including the Zika virus. The scientists are also examining how virus transmission by these mosquitoes may be affected by climate change.

Type: Text Resource

Parasites: Rulers of the Reef:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The text informs readers about the influence of parasites on damselfish, a coral reef species. The author explains how his team determined the reason for the consistent behavior of damselfish leaving their aggressively guarded territory each morning to go to a cleaning station. Through the scientist describing how his research lead to new observations that lead to new questions and research, the text is a good example of how scientific investigations are conducted, including working collaboratively and communicating important results.

Type: Text Resource

Why Do We Yawn?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article seeks to answer the question, "Why do we yawn?" Scientists have yet to reach consensus about the function of yawning. Social and physiological claims about why we yawn are presented from Hippocrates, 17th and 18th century scientists, and scientists today.

Type: Text Resource

Where Does Water Go When It Doesn't Flow?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article describes how scientific thoughts about the water cycle have changed over time, particularly due to information gathered in a recent study. The article gives a good representation of the scientific method and the importance of the water cycle.

Type: Text Resource

Zanzibar's Malaria Hunter:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article is about a woman, Habiba, who uses a motorbike to travel to families in the villages of Zanzibar to track, test, and treat malaria patients. After receiving a text message about the location of a malaria patient, she travels to the patient and tests the patient's family to see if other family members have malaria. Then, she treats any infected family members with medicine, giving them extra medicine and insecticide-treated mosquito nets, while educating them about prevention of the disease and its transmission.

Type: Text Resource

What are El Niño and La Niña?:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The article explains what El Niño and La Niña are in terms of meteorology. It also explains the weather effects of both and a brief history of their names.

Type: Text Resource

Three Miles High: Using Drones to Study High-Altitude Glaciers:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. This text describes new and creative technologies that are being used in climate research to study high-altitude glaciers and map how they are changing. The text describes the ways in which the use of drones with time-lapse thermal camera systems are being used to gather data over the Peruvian Andes more effectively than satellites or planes. The text also describes some of the researchers' early findings based on the data they have gathered through the use of these drones.

Type: Text Resource

Buried in Ash, Ancient Salvadoran Village Shows Images of Daily Life:

This informational text is designed to support reading in the content area. It describes the remains of a Salvadoran village preserved in volcanic ash, much like Europe's Pompeii. The unearthed village reveals artifacts that illustrate the daily lives of this ancient people. The authors use artifacts to infer religious, cultural and economic aspects of the Ceren village.

Type: Text Resource

Shedding Light on Millipede Evolution:

This informational text resource is designed to support reading in the content area. The author tells of his success in locating and reclassifying a species of millipedes known as Motyxia bistipita. Until his rediscovery these millipedes were not known to show bioluminescence. Once he discovered this trait he was then also able to trace their evolutionary lineage and determine the reasons for the development of this ability in bipista's relatives. This article also discusses bioluminescence in other species and its important medical applications.

Type: Text Resource

Avogadro: Voice in the Wilderness:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains how Avogadro's hypothesis, proposed prior to the publishing of Dalton's atomic theory, was initially rejected. But his hypothesis turned out to be the key to solving many problems facing chemistry in the 1800s. The article describes how the later acceptance of his original idea changed the subject forever and even allowed for the creation of the periodic table.

Type: Text Resource

The Importance of Wastewater Treatment :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Wastewater is being dumped into rivers, streams, and oceans, affecting not only the marine environment but also water quality in general. Better treatment processes are needed before this contaminated waste reaches our waterways. The article points out the problems faced by specific countries and their need for better management.

Type: Text Resource

Polar Bear Evolution Was Fast and Furious:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. New evidence shows that polar bears split off from their closest ancestors, brown bears, less than 500,000 years ago. This is a very short time for a large mammal to evolve. In that time, polar bears have evolved many adaptations to their specialized lifestyle, including the ability to process the large amount of fat in their seal-based diet. This is shown by their unique DNA sequence of genes related to fat processing and heart development.

Type: Text Resource

Undead-End: Fungus that Controls Zombie-Ants has own Fungal Stalker:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Zombies may seem like science fiction, but that's exactly what scientists are calling the behavior in some species of ants. This article looks at the parasitic relationship between a form of fungus and carpenter ant that causes this zombie-like behavior. It also looks at a further complication to the process as the parasitic fungus has a parasite of its own.

Type: Text Resource

Space Weather: Sunspots, Solar Flares & Coronal Mass Ejections :

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This text describes three kinds of solar phenomena: sunspots, solar flares, and coronal mass ejections. Each is explained in relation to its effect on the weather, climate, and technology of Earth. NASA programs that monitor the activity of the Sun are also described.

Type: Text Resource

Demystifying Gross Stuff:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. From pimples to bad breath to passing gas, this article clears up the science behind some of the gross things our bodies do—acne, bad breath, and flatulence—in an attempt to make the gross seem a little less so.

Type: Text Resource

"Designer" Chromosome for Brewer's Yeast Built from Scratch:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. Scientists have been able to create a synthetic functioning chromosome (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) found in yeast. With this breakthrough, they might be able to create customizable bio-fuels, vaccines, or even synthetic organisms in the future.

Type: Text Resource

What is the Difference Between Linux and Windows?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. This article describes the difference between Linux and Windows. This article aligns with IIT Standard 13.04: Explain the history and purpose of various operating systems (e.g., DOS, Windows, Mac, and Unix/Linux).

Type: Text Resource

Probing Question: What is a Molecular Clock?:

This informational text resource is intended to support reading in the content area. The article explains what molecular clocks are and how they are used to calculate evolutionary divergence and other evolutionary events.

Type: Text Resource

STEM Lessons - Model Eliciting Activity

Looking for the best Employment Option:

Students will reaffirm their knowledge about linear equations. Will be able to apply the concept to real life situations.

Macromolecule Snack Attack:

In this MEA, students will be introduced to the four biological macromolecules through common snack foods found in vending machines. They will act as dietitians selecting and ranking snack foods based on given their nutrition labels and knowledge of the structure and function of the four biological macromolecules.

Magnificent Microscope Tradeoffs MEA:

Students will learn about the four types of microscopes (compound, dissection, transmission electron, and scanning electron) and compare them using the Model Eliciting Activity, or MEA, approach. Students act as a materials selection committee who will help a teacher decide which type(s) of microscopes are best suited for his classroom.

Marketing for the National Blood Pressure Association:

This MEA supports reading in the content area. Students create a model that the client can use to rank treatments for hypertension (high blood pressure) to choose the subject of their marketing campaign.

Parker County Public Works Project:

Have you ever considered what sort of discussion is done before deciding to build a water park or hospital in your town or county? What about the roads? The schools? This resource is a valuable tool in teaching students about the importance of developing a thought process and about the value in public works. The students will be conducting an MEA that revolves around the premise of deciding on what is the most important public works project for Parker County, FL.

Sustainability and Tourism Location MEA:

This MEA gives the students an opportunity to learn about sustainability and then apply that knowledge to help EcoAthletica determine the location for their next sustainable tourism resort. The students will use a variety of criteria and the definition of sustainability and sustainable tourism to create a model for choosing locations.

The Friendly Confines or The Nat - who has the best ballpark?:

Students will use basic arithmetic, simple functions, averages, and possibly weighted averages to rank 6 Major League Baseball Parks by home field advantage. Students will write a description of their process using correct terminology and appropriate tone.

Turning Tires Model Eliciting Activity:

The Turning Tires MEA provides students with an engineering problem in which they must work as a team to design a procedure to select the best tire material for certain situations. The main focus of the MEA is applying geometric concepts through modeling.

Original Student Tutorials for Language Arts - Grades 6-12

Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3 of 4):

Learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the third part of a four-part series. In previous tutorials in this series, students analyzed an informational text and video about scientists using drones to explore glaciers in Peru. Students also determined the central idea and key details of the text and wrote an effective summary. In part three, you'll learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay about the scientists' research. 

This tutorial is part three of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4 of 4):

Practice writing different aspects of an expository essay about scientists using drones to research glaciers in Peru. This interactive tutorial is part four of a four-part series. In this final tutorial, you will learn about the elements of a body paragraph. You will also create a body paragraph with supporting evidence. Finally, you will learn about the elements of a conclusion and practice creating a “gift.” 

This tutorial is part four of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 4 of 4):

Practice writing different aspects of an expository essay about scientists using drones to research glaciers in Peru. This interactive tutorial is part four of a four-part series. In this final tutorial, you will learn about the elements of a body paragraph. You will also create a body paragraph with supporting evidence. Finally, you will learn about the elements of a conclusion and practice creating a “gift.” 

This tutorial is part four of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Expository Writing: Eyes in the Sky (Part 3 of 4):

Learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay in this interactive tutorial. This tutorial is the third part of a four-part series. In previous tutorials in this series, students analyzed an informational text and video about scientists using drones to explore glaciers in Peru. Students also determined the central idea and key details of the text and wrote an effective summary. In part three, you'll learn how to write an introduction for an expository essay about the scientists' research. 

This tutorial is part three of a four-part series. Click below to open the other tutorials in this series.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.