LAFS.1112.RH.3.9

Integrate information from diverse sources, both primary and secondary, into a coherent understanding of an idea or event, noting discrepancies among sources.
General Information
Subject Area: English Language Arts
Grade: 1112
Strand: Reading Standards for Literacy in History/Social Studies 6–12
Idea: Level 3: Strategic Thinking & Complex Reasoning
Date Adopted or Revised: 12/10
Date of Last Rating: 02/14
Status: State Board Approved

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This benchmark is part of these courses.
2102310: Economics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2102320: Economics Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2102380: The American Economic Experience: Scarcity and Choice (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2020 (course terminated))
2102390: The American Economic Experience: Scarcity and Choice Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100320: United States History Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100390: Visions and Countervisions: Europe, the U.S. and the World from 1848 (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018 (course terminated))
2100480: Visions and Countervisions: Europe, U.S. and the World from 1848 Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106310: United States Government (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106320: United States Government Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106450: The American Political System: Process and Power (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019 (course terminated))
2106460: The American Political System: Process and Power Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2100310: United States History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7921015: Access United States Government  (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7921025: Access United States History (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
7921020: Access Economics (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 and beyond (current))
2100315: United States History for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2102315: Economics for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2102345: Economics with Financial Literacy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2106315: United States Government for Credit Recovery (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7921040: Fundamental Economics (Specifically in versions: 2013 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7921042: Fundamental Economics with Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2017 (course terminated))
7921022: Access Economics with Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2014 - 2015, 2015 - 2018, 2018 and beyond (current))
2102372: Personal Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2102374: Personal Financial Literacy Honors (Specifically in versions: 2015 - 2018, 2018 - 2019, 2019 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
2104315: Exploring Hip Hop as Literature (Specifically in versions: 2017 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
7921021: Access Personal Financial Literacy (Specifically in versions: 2019 and beyond (current))
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1005351: Humane Letters 3 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005352: Humane Letters 3 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005353: Humane Letters 4 Literature (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)
1005354: Humane Letters 4 Literature Honors (Specifically in versions: 2020 - 2022 (current), 2022 and beyond)

Related Access Points

Alternate version of this benchmark for students with significant cognitive disabilities.

Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Lesson Plans

Where is the Love? Civil Rights in America:

In this lesson, students will integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information about Brown v. Board of Education and the struggle for civil rights before and after the case through discussion, music, and video, using reasoning and evidence from class discussions to be inspired to do their part to educate and stop discrimination.

Type: Lesson Plan

Poverty in America:

Using NY Times articles and interactive features, students learn about the historical basis for the "War on Poverty", modern vs. historical factors that determine poverty, and compare approaches for combating poverty. Students will practice noting bias when examining sources to draw their own conclusions.

Type: Lesson Plan

If at First you Don't Succeed: Drafting the Declaration of Independence:

This lesson focuses on the drafting of the Declaration of Independence in June of 1776 in Philadelphia. Students will analyze primary source documents, making comparisons between first and final drafts of the Declaration of Independence. The students will analyze and evaluate the significance of the differences in wording and the impact on modern government.

Type: Lesson Plan

Why Does the Dog Drool?...Ding, ding, ding, dingdingdingding!:

This lesson focuses on two key experiments on classical conditioning: Ivan Pavlov's dogs and John Watson's "Little Albert." After students have time to explore conditioning with an interactive tool using Pavlov's dog, they will read about Pavlov's work. Later, they will read an account of the "Little Albert" experiment and watch a short video clip. Students will analyze how classical conditioning is used in each of these experiments. As an end of lesson assessment, students will write an explanatory essay comparing and contrasting these two experiments.

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The Cuban Missile Crisis:

In this lesson, students will determine to what extent the Cuban Missile Crisis changed the Cold War as they analyze primary and secondary documents, including letters and telegrams from President Kennedy First Secretary Khrushchev, regarding events that brought the United States and the Soviet Union to the brink of nuclear war.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Guatemala:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: How and why did the U.S. fight the Cold War in Guatemala? The teacher begins by explaining how covert actions were part of the Cold War. Students read 2 brief accounts of the CIA takeover from recent textbooks. Students answer questions in pairs. Class discussion: Why does each textbook include details the other leaves out? Students then read a declassified CIA document-an assassination list with names deleted-and discuss: how does this document challenge the textbook accounts? A final class discussion attempts to place this incident in the larger context of what students have learned about the Cold War.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Women in the 1950s:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Is the image of the "happy 1950s housewife" accurate? The teacher first introduces the time period and some of its features: the baby boom, the GI Bill, suburbia, Leave it to Beaver. The teacher then shows images of the "happy housewife" from 50s-era publications. In groups, students analyze 2 documents: a Harper's magazine article on suburbia and a passage from Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique. They complete a graphic organizer that includes a hypothesis: does the stereotype seem true? Students then do the same with 2 more documents: secondary source analyses by Joanne Meyerowitz and Alice Kessler-Harris. The class completes the graphic organizer and shares final hypotheses in a group discussion: Should we believe the stereotype? How about the experience of minority women?

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Great Society:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Was the Great Society successful? Students first read LBJ's "Great Society" speech and answer sourcing, close reading and context questions about it before discussing as a class. The teacher then hands out a list of Great Society programs and asks: Which have you heard of? Which do you think were successful? Students then watch a film clip about the Great Society, streamed via Discovery Education. This is followed up with 2 secondary sources: a "Pro" perspective from historian Joseph Califano and a "Con" perspective from Thomas Sowell. They fill out a graphic organizer in groups and discuss: Which historian is more convincing? What kind of evidence does each use to make his case? How do these arguments still play out today?

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Montgomery Bus Boycott:

In this lesson, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Montgomery Bus Boycott succeed? The teacher first introduces the boycott and Rosa Parks by streaming a film clip from historicalthinkingmatters.org. Students then break into 3 groups and look at a textbook account of the boycott and a timeline, making a "claim" as to why the boycott succeeded and sharing it with the whole class. The groups then corroborate with 2 more documents-a letter by Jo Ann Robinson and a memo by Bayard Rustin-and make another claim. Finally, 2 more documents-a letter by Virginia Durr and a speech by Martin Luther King, Jr.-are added to the mix, and students formulate and share a final claim. In a final class discussion, students reflect on how their claims did/did not change as they encountered more evidence.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: New Deal SAC:

In this lesson, designed to follow a more general study of the New Deal, students analyze primary and secondary source documents and engage in a Structured Academic Controversy in an effort to answer the central historical question: Was the New Deal a success or a failure? Students receive 7 documents, including a "fireside chat" by FDR, an oral interview, a speech by a WPA representative, unemployment statistics, and song lyrics by the Carter Family. Students then divide into groups of 4 and into pairs within each group to analyze the documents using a graphic organizer. Each pair presents the argument to the other that the New Deal was either (Pair A) successful or (Pair B) a failure. Only at the end can students abandon their previous positions, reach consensus in writing as a group, and defend that view in a final class discussion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Social Security:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Which historical account of Social Security is more accurate? Students begin by responding to a prompt: should out-of-work Americans receive government assistance? The teacher then streams a video on the New Deal and its critics, including Huey Long, followed by discussion. Students then look at the summarized views of 2 historians, Carl Degler and Barton Bernstein. In pairs, students summarize and discuss. They then read 3 primary source documents: 1) a 1935 speech by FDR, 2) the testimony of NAACP spokesman Charles Houston before Congress, and 3) a letter to Mrs. Roosevelt by an anonymous critic of Social Security. For each, students answer guiding questions. In a final class discussion, students corroborate the documents and use them to side with the views of 1 historian-Degler or Bernstein-over the other.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Chicago Race Riots of 1919:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: What caused the Chicago race riots of 1919? The teacher begins with a mini-lecture on the Great Migration and then streams the video trailer for a documentary film called Up South. Students then read 2 secondary source accounts of the riots: 1 from a generic textbook and another from John H. Franklin's From Slavery to Freedom. Students analyze with a graphic organizer and discuss: which account is more believable and why? They then do the same for 3 primary sources, drawn from contemporary newspapers and magazines. A final class discussion attempts to identify the real cause of the riots and places them in a larger context of racial violence at the time.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: U.S. Entry into WWI:

In this lesson, designed to follow a more general lesson on the causes and warring parties of WWI, students analyze primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the U.S. enter World War I? The teacher begins with a mini-lesson on Woodrow Wilson. Students then read 2 Wilson documents: 1) a 1914 speech urging American neutrality and 2) Wilson's 1917 speech on the U.S. entry into the war. Students then read their class textbook's explanation for the end of U.S. neutrality, followed by an excerpt from Howard Zinn's People's History of the United States. For all documents, students answer guiding questions which stress contextualization and close reading. A final class discussion evaluates Zinn's views and compares them to the other sources.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Slavery in the Constitution:

In this lesson, students analyze a variety of primary and secondary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Founding Fathers keep slavery in the Constitution? Students first read Thomas Jefferson's original (deleted) anti-slavery grievance from the Declaration of Independence. Students are then given brief statements from 4 different Founders (Benjamin Franklin among them). These are followed by paragraph-length analyses from 3 historians who comment from a historical distance on the Founders' unwillingness or inability to eliminate slavery. The lesson ends with a "debrief" class discussion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Battle of Lexington:

In this lesson, students will study the first outbreak of violence in the American Revolution in an effort to answer the central historical question: What happened at the Battle of Lexington? Through sourcing and contextualization questions students will study a textbook passage on the battle, two primary source documents (one from a British soldier and one from a group of minutemen), and two paintings of the battle. As a final assessment, students will rewrite the textbook's account, taking into account the new perspectives they have learned.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Declaration of Independence :

In this lesson, students study primary and secondary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Why did the Founders write the Declaration of Independence? Students will examine contrasting views by two historians. Then they will read the preamble of the Declaration (2 versions of varying reading complexity are provided) and rewrite it in their own words. Students will also examine a simplified list of the grievances against King George specified in the Declaration. Finally, students and teacher attempt to answer the central question and determine which featured historian has the better argument.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Hamilton vs. Jefferson:

In this lesson, students analyze two primary source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: What were the differences between [Alexander] Hamilton and [Thomas] Jefferson? Students first read a textbook summary/description (not included) of the Hamilton/Jefferson dynamic. Then, students are given a letter by each man—both addressed to George Washington and written on the same day—each of which addresses the ongoing feud with the other man. In pairs, students read the documents and answer sourcing, corroboration, contextualization, and close reading questions, including some intriguing ones which encourage students to "pick sides" in the rivalry.

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Reading Like a Historian: Lewis and Clark SAC:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary source documents, as well as engage in a Structured Academic Controversy, in an effort to answer the central historical question: Were Lewis and Clark respectful to the Native Americans they encountered on their journey? Detailed directions are provided for both teacher and students as to how to conduct a Structured Academic Controversy. All primary and secondary source documents (a letter from Thomas Jefferson, 4 excerpts from Clark's journals from 1805 and 1806, and a Time magazine article exploring the expedition from the Native American's point of view) are included with the lesson.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Mapping the New World:

This lesson plan requires students to compare/contrast two maps, one from 1636 and the other from 1651, of early colonial Virginia. Students will think about how and why maps change over time, including how maps might be affected by changing historical events.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Nat Turner:

In this lesson, students analyze 3 source documents in an effort to answer the central historical question: Was Nat Turner a hero or a madman? The lesson begins by first reading the class textbook's account of the Nat Turner massacre and then reading a timeline which includes Turner's capture and execution. The teacher them models the first document, an excerpt from Thomas Gray's Confessions of Nat Turner, by helping students answer sourcing, contextualization, corroboration, and close reading questions. Students then do the same with 2 more documents: a newspaper editorial contemptuous of Turner and an admiring 1843 speech by Henry Garnet to the National Negro Convention. Finally, students use all 3 documents to write a response to the central question and discuss as a class: what kind of person was Nat Turner?

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Pocahontas:

This lesson focuses around two different versions of John Smith's "rescue" by Pocahontas. Students compare and contrast the two versions and encounter the idea of subjectivity versus objectivity in primary source historical documents. Finally, they read the brief opinions of two historians who provide their perspectives on the incident.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Progressive Social Reformers SAC:

In this lesson, students analyze primary sources and engage in a Structured Academic Controversy in an effort to answer the central historical question: What were the attitudes of Progressive social reformers toward immigrants? Students first read their textbook's passage on the Social Gospel and Settlement Houses. The teacher reviews the material, emphasizing main points, and then streams a brief film clip (link included) about women in the Progressive era. Students then divide into groups of 4 and into pairs within each group. Each pair presents the argument to the other that social reformers were either (Pair A) generous and helpful or (Pair B) condescending and judgmental. Only at the end can students abandon their previous positions, reach consensus in writing as a group, and defend that view in a final class discussion: how did social attitudes then differ from those of today?

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Sharecropping:

In this lesson, students analyze a primary source document in an effort to answer the central historical question: How accurate is the textbook's description of sharecropping? Students first view an 1898 photo of sharecroppers-most will probably assume the workers to be slaves. In pairs, students then read their textbook's description of sharecropping and compare it to an actual 1882 sharecropping contract. Guiding questions on the document and a final discussion allow the class to judge the accuracy of the textbook's depiction.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: Shays' Rebellion :

In this lesson, students analyze a primary source in an effort to answer the central historical question: How did Americans react to Shays' Rebellion? Students read a textbook excerpt (included) about Shays' Rebellion and a letter from Thomas Jefferson speaking about Shays' rebels. Students answer questions that ask them to analyze the letter through sourcing, contextualization, close reading, and corroboration questions. A final class discussion corroborates the textbook passage and the Jefferson letter in an effort to challenge the popular account in which all Americans feared the rebellion.

Type: Lesson Plan

Reading Like a Historian: The Battle of the Little Bighorn:

In this lesson, students analyze primary and secondary sources in an effort to answer the central historical question: Who was responsible for the Battle of the Little Bighorn? After a mini-lecture on the late 1800s Indian Wars, students read a textbook account of the battle, and then compare it to 2 documents: 1) a report by the War Secretary, and 2) an account by Kate Bighead, a Cheyenne Indian. Students answer guiding questions for all documents, followed by a class discussion. For homework, students write a new textbook account using primary source information.

Type: Lesson Plan

Original Student Tutorials

Literacy in History: The Pullman Strike, Part 2:

Practice literacy skills while learning more about the Pullman Strike of 1894 in this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial in a two-part series. Click to launch Part 1 where you'll learn the history behind the same event.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Literacy in History: The Pullman Strike, Part 1:

Learn the history behind the Pullman Strike of 1894 in part 1 of this interactive tutorial.  In Part 2, you'll practice your literacy skills while learning more about the same event! 

Click  to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Original Student Tutorials Social Studies - U.S. History - Grades 9-12

Literacy in History: The Pullman Strike, Part 1:

Learn the history behind the Pullman Strike of 1894 in part 1 of this interactive tutorial.  In Part 2, you'll practice your literacy skills while learning more about the same event! 

Click  to open part 2.

Literacy in History: The Pullman Strike, Part 2:

Practice literacy skills while learning more about the Pullman Strike of 1894 in this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial in a two-part series. Click to launch Part 1 where you'll learn the history behind the same event.

Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.

Original Student Tutorials

Literacy in History: The Pullman Strike, Part 2:

Practice literacy skills while learning more about the Pullman Strike of 1894 in this interactive tutorial.

This is the second tutorial in a two-part series. Click to launch Part 1 where you'll learn the history behind the same event.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Literacy in History: The Pullman Strike, Part 1:

Learn the history behind the Pullman Strike of 1894 in part 1 of this interactive tutorial.  In Part 2, you'll practice your literacy skills while learning more about the same event! 

Click  to open part 2.

Type: Original Student Tutorial

Parent Resources

Vetted resources caregivers can use to help students learn the concepts and skills in this benchmark.