Lesson Plan Template: Confirmatory or Structured Inquiry
Learning Objectives: What will students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
Students will relate the change in temperature to the change in motion at the molecular level.
Students will understand that the molecular motion (kinetic movement/energy at the atomic level measured by their collision with the thermometer ie. temperature) determines the state of matter of the substance as well as the phase transitions.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
Basic middle grades definition of solids, liquids, gases as well as the phase changes between each state of matter.
Basic definition of kinetic energy.
How to construct a line graph.
Lab safety and basic lab procedures.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
How can matter change forms?From states ie. solid to liquid, liquid to gas, etc. Students may even say things like melt, freeze, evaporate,etc. Teachers should work into the discussion how state changes are physical changes (reversible - chemical content does not change, molecules do not rearrange).
What properties can be used to describe matter? Possibilities in the responses will include physical properties (color, texture, mass, etc.) as well as chemical (contains hydrogen and oxygen, etc.). Consider having student categorize their responses in a T chart which students can record in their science notebook for reference.
How is temperature measured? Students will most likely respond "with a thermometer" however teachers should guide their responses to a higher level of complexity such as "how does a thermometer work" (the friction from the collisions of the molecules of the sample on the thermometer - how much/fast they are hitting the instrument).
Introduction: How will the teacher introduce the lesson to the students?
Using the formative assessment where individual shaker bottles are provided for each student. Teacher asks students (individual, groups or whole class) to use their shaker bottle and model a solid (beads vibrating in place), a liquid (more bead movement some flowing over one another), and/or gas (vigorous shaking of the bottle - beads taking up entire container). The teacher can also ask about the various phase changes (ie. show me a solid...now make it melt).
Engage: Possible story to use: "Imagine yourself on a hot summer day. You want to cool off your body so you grab an orange popsicle. The problem is that this popsicle is melting so fast, you can't eat it all fast enough. It has melted all over your hand and the sidewalk. What happened to this popsicle? Is it still a popsicle after it has melted? "Remind students that everything around us is matter. It all takes up space and has a mass and a volume. While contemplating the story, ask student groups to watch an ice cube (symbolizing the popsicle from the story) for 5-7 minutes and after some discussion among their group make 4 observations about the system and a prediction of what the system would look like in about an hour. Have student groups record their list on their collaborative whiteboard as well as in their individual science notebook.
Whole class discussion of observations: Facilitate the instruction through the 'mini water cycle' happening in front of them (solid melting into the liquid gradually evaporating into water vapor ie. a gas, in the air diffusing throughout the new "container" which is the classroom. Remind students they are familiar with the concept of diffusion from biology. Teachers can also draw on real life Earth/Space Science examples using the water cycle of our planet including the states of matter and phase changes. Facilitate with student how to make their observations more quantitative (distinctly measurable) utilizing available science equipment/instrumentation ie. Thermometer for temperature, balance for mass, calculation for volume, etc. Conclude this day by solidifying the concepts covered in a foldable. Teachers should provide an instruction foldable and provide resources for students to finish the construction of theirs. The foldable can the be pasted in the science notebook. Reference documents containing pictures of a sample. Teachers can choose to make the foldable a circular shape by including the phase changes of sublimation and deposition.
Investigate: What question(s) will students be investigating? What process will students follow to collect information that can be used to answer the question(s)?
How does temperature (ie the kinetic energy at the molecular level relate to phases/changes in matter?
The next day have students complete the Heat Curve Lab, a Structured Inquiry. See attachment as well as a sample set up of the lab equipment. Small lab groups of 3 to 4 students heat a beaker of ice water to a rapid boil collecting data in order to graph the heating curve of water. During the lab have students use Educative Assessment strategies to evaluate their own understanding utilizing the shaker bottles and correlating them to when they are in the lab.
Analyze: How will students organize and interpret the data collected during the investigation?
Student groups will collect the temperature of their water system every 30 seconds and record it into a self designed data table. That data will then be constructed into a smooth line graph. After completing their graph, students will see the heat curve of water with flat lines during the time period preceding the phase change, from one state of matter to another and associate that with the building of motion at the molecular level so that the molecules can change from one state of matter to the next by over coming their intermolecular forces.
Closure: What will the teacher do to bring the lesson to a close? How will the students make sense of the investigation?
Repeat formative assessment utilizing the shaker bottles. With the whole class focused, the teacher could point to various places on a projected heat curve graph and ask students to model it with the shaker bottle. Or visit each group and point a to point or transition section on the graph they constructed.
Popsicle story conclusion: ask students for ideas/rationale for how to keep a popsicle in the solid form longer. Have them re-evaluate their original recorded thoughts/observations in their science notebook. Could ask students to design an experiment based on the popsicle story.
Have students complete Summative Assessment questions provided.
The teacher can use the shaker bottles as an individual assessment (quiz) asking students to model phase changes with their actions. Formal assessment being multiple choice questions.Samples attached on SummAssessKEMlc.docx.
Using the individual shaker bottles (recycled plastic bottles with a bead mixture inside, see attached picture - ShakerbottlesWd.docx) ask students (individually, as a group or as a class) to model each state of matter and the molecular motion with which it is associated. Shaker bottles can be recalled at any point during the lesson and used to assess learning gains. (Solids - beads vibrating in places, liquids - beads staying in constant contact possibly flowing over one another, gases - beads moving rapidly within the entire container.)
Feedback to Students
Students can compare their shaker bottle action (solids - beads vibrating in places, liquids - beads staying in constant contact possibly flowing over one another, gases - beads moving rapidly within the entire container) to that of their peers and/or the teacher if applicable at that time. Students can correlate their shaker bottle action with the states of matter seen in the Heat Curve Lab. Show your group how the molecules are moving at 30 seconds, at 4 minutes, etc.