In this lesson, students will analyze an intended to support reading in the content area. The National Geographic article discusses the problems facing Miami Beach as health officials try to execute a mosquito management program to combat Zika. Because of the high rise buildings, the pesticides being sprayed are not reaching the intended areas. Another concern is that mosquitoes may become resistant to the first choice pesticides being used against them. This lesson is designed to support reading in the content area. The lesson plan includes a note-taking guide, text-dependent questions, a writing prompt, answer keys, and a writing rubric.
Subject(s): Science, English Language Arts
Grade Level(s): 9, 10
Computer for Presenter, Computers for Students, Internet Connection, LCD Projector, Speakers/Headphones, Microsoft Office
Resource supports reading in content area:Yes
Keywords: Zika, insecticides, insecticide resistance, antibiotic resistance, public health, mosquitoes, mosquito-borne disease, Miami, text complexity, lesson plan, pesticide
Lesson Plan Template: General Lesson Plan
Learning Objectives: What should students know and be able to do as a result of this lesson?
- Explain why the landscape of Miami Beach poses challenges in the fight against the spread of Zika.
- Explain why health authorities are concerned about Aedes aegypti becoming resistant to pesticides.
- Describe how the Aedes aegypti mosquito can become resistant to the pesticides being used against it.
- Cite specific and relevant text evidence to support analysis of the text.
- Use various vocabulary strategies to define academic and domain-specific words in the text.
- Construct a written response that clearly establishes a main point, contains relevant textual evidence to support the main point, utilizes transitions to maintain flow, effectively uses domain-specific vocabulary, and provides an appropriate conclusion.
Prior Knowledge: What prior knowledge should students have for this lesson?
- Students should have general knowledge of the Zika virus and its characteristics. If students need a refresher, have them review the following information from the or the video "Understanding Zika" by The New York Times.
- Students should have a general understanding of how pesticides and insecticides work on mosquitoes. The teacher should discuss the pesticides Permethrin and Malathion as well as Naled. The following informational sheet from The Pesticide Research Institute can be used as needed by the instructor. This resource from the CDC provides information on the aerial spraying program being used against mosquitoes.
- Students should be familiar with how insects can become resistant to pesticides and bacteria to antibiotics. This video clip from CNN describes how bacteria can become resistant to antibiotics.
- Students should have prior experience utilizing various vocabulary strategies to determine the meaning of unknown words in a text. For this lesson, prior experience with using context clues to determine the meaning of words in a text would be beneficial. In addition, students should have some dictionary skills that will enable them to look up words with multiple meanings and determine the most appropriate meaning based on how a word is used in a text.
- Based on the rubric provided, students should be able to respond to a writing prompt in a clear, organized manner that includes use of an introduction to establish the main point(s), a body paragraph(s) that support the main point(s) and includes relevant and specific textual evidence, and a conclusion that supports the main point(s).
- Students should have some awareness that use of transition words or phrases can help a piece of writing flow smoothly from one point or idea to the next.
Guiding Questions: What are the guiding questions for this lesson?
- What challenges exist in Miami Beach as health authorities attempt to control the mosquito population with pesticide spraying?
Challenges include the actual physical features of the city, including high rise hotels and condominiums. As airplanes try to spray pesticides close to the ground, the buildings act as a physical barrier preventing the full amount of pesticide from reaching its target. The buildings also produce wind currents, making it harder for the pesticide to get where it needs to be. The delivery of pesticides through aerial dispersal requires knowledge of the outdoor conditions as well. Physical factors such as humidity, air currents, and air drift also need to be taken into account with this type of management program.
- Why are health authorities concerned about the effectiveness of the spraying campaign against the Aedes aegypti mosquito?
Health officials are concerned that the targeted mosquitoes may become resistant to the pesticides being used against them. Due to the challenges faced in Miami Beach, some mosquitoes will be missed by the sprayings altogether or will not receive full dosages of the pesticides. As mosquito populations become more exposed to pesticides, there are also going to be populations that become resistant. This has already occurred in Puerto Rico, where the first choice pesticides were no longer effective and a controversial pesticide was used instead.
Teaching Phase: How will the teacher present the concept or skill to students?
- Begin the lesson by asking students to brainstorm in groups and write down everything they know about theZika virus.
- Allow about 10 minutes for this task, then have the groups share their findings with the rest of the class.
- Students will probably know that Zika is caused by mosquitoes, that it can cause microcephaly, that it is known to be sexually transmitted, and that there have been cases found in the United States.
- Next ask students: "What are some ways to prevent being bitten by mosquitoes that may carry theZika virus?"
- Students might say to wear bug spray, stay inside when mosquitoes are known to be out, eliminate standing water in yards to prevent eggs from being laid, etc.
- Next ask students: "Where in the United States hasZika been confirmed?"
- Students will hopefully be aware that South Florida, specifically the Miami Beach area, is considered a "hot spot" for the transmission of Zika.
- Explain to students that health authorities in the Miami area have a mosquito control program which involves the spraying of pesticides from small airplanes. Show them a picture of and ask them what type of difficulties this area might pose to that effort.
- They might suggest the high rises, the proximity of the buildings, the wind currents between the buildings, etc.
- Finally, tell students they will be reading and analyzing a National Geographic article that focuses on the efforts to control mosquito populations and the problems being encountered in Miami Beach with these attempts. Tell students how the CDC has concerns about mosquitoes found in South Florida becoming resistant against the pesticides being used.
Guided Practice: What activities or exercises will the students complete with teacher guidance?
- Provide each student with a copy of the . For class discussions that will follow, it might be helpful to have students number the sections, as well as the paragraphs within each section.
- Provide each student with a note-taking guide. Have students complete this guide during or after their first reading of the article. Make sure to provide print or online dictionaries for students to use for the vocabulary section.
- Based on the needs and skills of students, teachers can decrease the number of academic or domain-specific vocabulary they must define on the note-taking guide.
- For academic vocabulary, students will likely be able to use a variety of vocabulary strategies to define the meaning of the words. For domain-specific (subject-specific) vocabulary, students will typically need to draw on prior knowledge, use context clues, and/or use a dictionary to define the words.
- Students can work individually, in pairs, or in small groups.
- If students struggle with determining the meaning of the selected vocabulary, teachers might use the following tips to help them:
- Flourishing (paragraph 2): To be doing very well. There are a few context clues for this specific word; students should key in on the phrasing "the ways those compounds are delivered doesn't fit..." to determine the meaning.
- Alluded (paragraph 4): To make an indirect reference to. There are a few context clues for this word ("when he announced") and clues related to Miami being declared a hot zone. If students are unable to determine the definition, have them use a dictionary.
- Aerial (paragraph 5): Performed using an airplane. Students should be able to determine the meaning of the word due to the continued references to airplanes and the use of airplanes to deliver the pesticides.
- Entomologist (paragraph 6): A scientist who studies insects. There are context clues provided for students to determine the meaning of this word. The entomologist is President of the American Mosquito Control Association and is an executive at the pest control company Terminex.
- Dose (paragraph 9): The amount of something. There are context clues for the students to use to determine the meaning of the word: "if the dose they're subjected to isn't enough to kill them..."
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?):
- Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' completed note-taking guides, checking their work, providing written feedback, or grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
- Teachers can use the sample answer key in the note-taking guide to help them assess students' answers (scroll down to end of document).
- For discussion of students' answers to the defined vocabulary words, teachers are encouraged to not only ask students to explain the meaning they determined for a word, but the strategy they used to arrive at that meaning. This will allow the teacher to provide alternative suggestions as to how the student could have arrived at the correct meaning of the word.
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond:
- Students might believe everyone who gets Zika becomes very sick. Actually, the main concern is for pregnant women due to birth defects the virus may cause.
- Explain to students that Zika is considered a zoonotic disease (passed from animals to humans), but it is now also known that Zika can be sexually transmitted.
Independent Practice: What activities or exercises will students complete to reinforce the concepts and skills developed in the lesson?
Provide each student with a copy of the text-dependent questions to complete. Students should be reminded to continually refer back to the text and to use relevant and specific evidence from the text to support their answers.
Formative Assessment (How will teachers check for student understanding?):
- Teachers can check students' understanding by collecting students' answers to the text-dependent questions, checking their work, providing written feedback, and maybe grading the assignment. Or, teachers can have students share out their responses and the teacher can provide verbal corrective feedback, allowing students to make corrections to their work during the discussion.
- Teachers can use the sample answer key in the text-dependent questions to help them assess students' answers (scroll down to bottom of document.)
Common errors/misconceptions to anticipate and how to respond: See the answer key for the text-dependent questions.
Closure: How will the teacher assist students in organizing the knowledge gained in the lesson?
- Before students complete the writing assignment for the summative assessment, review the responses to the text-dependent questions completed earlier by the students. Make sure the misconceptions are corrected and the key points (as found in the sample answer key) are discussed.
- After students' written responses have been graded and returned with feedback, teachers might wish to use the provided sample response with the class. Students who are struggling writers can benefit greatly from seeing a well-organized, detailed written response. The teacher could show the sample response on an overhead or with anLCD projector and discuss some of the following:
- How the topic is introduced in the opening sentences of the introductory paragraph; have students identify the main point of the piece. Brainstorm with students other ways the writer could have opened the piece.
- Have students examine each of the body paragraphs and explain how each supports the main point of the piece. Have students identify where the writer effectively uses textual evidence from the article for support of his or her points.
- Have students identify the use of transition words or phrases that make the ideas flow.
- Ask students to identify where domain-specific vocabulary is used accurately and effectively.
- Have students read the final paragraph to see how the writer wrapped up the piece and connected back to the main point established in the introduction.
- Ask students to sketch or draw three concepts they learned from the lesson (remind them of the lesson objectives), and then label them. Allow approximately 5-10 minutes.
- Students can share their results with the class or turn them into the teacher. Teachers may use this as another formative assessment to help them prepare for the next day's lesson.
- Students will individually respond to the writing prompt. They should be directed to respond with a multi-paragraph response with a clear introduction, body section, and conclusion. They can refer back to the text as they construct their response.
- Provide students with a copy of the rubric and go over it with them so they will know how their written response will be assessed.
- Go over the writing prompt with students and make sure students understand what the prompt is asking them to address:
- Using evidence and support from the text, explain the CDC's concerns about the possibility of mosquitoes becoming resistant to pesticides in Florida.
- Teachers will use the rubric to assess students' written responses.
Specific suggestions for conducting Formative Assessment can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Feedback to Students
Specific suggestions for conducting Feedback to Students can be found in the Guided Practice and Independent Practice phases of the lesson where it says, "How will you check for student understanding?"
Accommodations & Recommendations
The text's grade band recommendation reflects the shifts inherent in the standards and is based on a text complexity analysis of a quantitative measure, qualitative rubric, and reader and task considerations.
Source and Access Information
Name of Author/Source: Ellen Muse
District/Organization of Contributor(s): Brevard
Access Privileges: Public
* Please note that examples of resources are not intended as complete curriculum.