Standard 2 : Craft and Structure (Archived)



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General Information

Number: LAFS.7.RL.2
Title: Craft and Structure
Type: Cluster
Subject: English Language Arts - Archived
Grade: 7
Strand: Reading Standards for Literature

Related Standards

This cluster includes the following benchmarks
Code Description
LAFS.7.RL.2.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative and connotative meanings; analyze the impact of rhymes and other repetitions of sounds (e.g., alliteration) on a specific verse or stanza of a poem or section of a story or drama.
LAFS.7.RL.2.5: Analyze how a drama’s or poem’s form or structure (e.g., soliloquy, sonnet) contributes to its meaning.
LAFS.7.RL.2.6: Analyze how an author develops and contrasts the points of view of different characters or narrators in a text.


Related Access Points

This cluster includes the following access points.

Access Points

Access Point Number Access Point Title
LAFS.7.RL.2.AP.4a: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including figurative (i.e., metaphors, similes and idioms) and connotative meanings.
LAFS.7.RL.2.AP.4b: Identify alliteration within text.
LAFS.7.RL.2.AP.4c: Analyze how the use of rhymes or repetitions of sounds affect the tone of the poem, story or drama.
LAFS.7.RL.2.AP.5a: Examine how the structure of a poem or drama adds to its meaning.
LAFS.7.RL.2.AP.6a: Compare and contrast the points of view of different characters in the same text.


Related Resources

Vetted resources educators can use to teach the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Name Description
The Sounds of "Sympathy": Analyzing Rhyme and Repetition in Poetry:

Learn how the sound devices of rhyme and repetition are used in the poem "Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar and analyze how they contribute to the poem's meaning. 

How Form Contributes to Meaning in Shakespeare’s "Sonnet 18":

Explore the form and meaning of William Shakespeare's “Sonnet 18.”  In this interactive tutorial, you’ll examine how specific words and phrases contribute to meaning in the sonnet, select the features of a Shakespearean sonnet in the poem, identify the solution to a problem, and explain how the form of a Shakespearean sonnet contributes to the meaning of "Sonnet 18."

The Mystery of the Past: How the Form of a Villanelle Contributes to Meaning in "The House on the Hill":

Explore the mysterious poem “The House on the Hill” by Edwin Arlington Robinson in this interactive tutorial. As you explore the poem's message about the past, you’ll identify the features of a villanelle in the poem. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a villanelle contributes to the poem's meaning.

A Giant of Size and Power – Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in "The New Colossus":

Continue to explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem "The New Colossus." By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. 

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two.

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of 'The New Colossus.'"

A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of "The New Colossus":

In Part One, explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

This famous poem also happens to be in the form of a sonnet. In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem. By the end of this tutorial series, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in 'The New Colossus.'"

Spread Your Wings: Structure & Meaning in Poetry:

Learn how poems are organized to express and develop themes. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read "My Pretty Rose Tree" by William Blake and "'Hope' is the thing with feathers" by Emily Dickinson. Using these classic poems, you'll examine the structure of poetry and review several relevant terms including stanzas, diction, and mood

Fender Bender: Analyzing Points of View:

Learn to analyze the differing points of view of various characters within a story. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read a short story about a fender bender that occurs between a teacher and student and identify the objective and subjective statements made by each character as they relay their version of events.

Analyzing POEtry:

Learn how to identify sound devices such as repetition, alliteration, and assonance in the poems of Edgar Allan Poe. As you complete this interactive tutorial, you'll read portions of "The Raven," "The Bells," and "Annabel Lee."  

Lesson Plans

Name Description
Is Anyone Hungry? Got Oysters? The Walrus and the Carpenter – Two Tragically, Hungry Characters:

In this close reading lesson, the first in a series of three lessons, students will analyze "The Walrus and the Carpenter" by Lewis Carroll. They will work to determine the meaning of selected vocabulary words from the poem, including coming up with synonyms and antonyms for each word and using each word in a sentence. Students will also analyze the use of various types of figurative language, as well as the use of repetition and rhyme and how this use impacts meaning and tone throughout the poem. Graphic organizers and other student handouts, a vocabulary assessment, short and extended answer questions, a writing rubric, and several suggested answer keys are included with this lesson.

Close Reading Exemplar: As You Like It:

The goal of this two day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they've been practicing on a regular basis to unpack the meaning of Jacques' soliloquy from William Shakespeare's As You Like It. By reading and rereading the passage closely and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will be able to understand the structure and purpose of this particular soliloquy and how it delves into universal themes regarding the human condition. When combined with writing about the soliloquy, students will discover how much they can learn from even a very short selection of a text.

Engineering the Perfect Poem by Using the Vocabulary of STEM:

In this lesson by Deborah Kozdras, Ph.D. and James L. Welsh, provided by ReadWriteThink.org, a website developed by the International Reading Association, the National Council of Teachers of English, with support from the Verizon Foundation, students will use the Internet to research unique engineering careers. Students will then create poems incorporating career-specific vocabulary terms and present their findings to the class.

"Uncoiling" the Theme: In this lesson, students will read the poem "Uncoiling" by Pat Mora, determine the poem's theme (central message) by identifying various literary devices through a close reading of the text, and then compose a written analysis of the poem, as they understand it.
Edgar Allan Poe: A Life in Poetry:

In this lesson, students will be introduced to the life of Edgar Allan Poe and some of his poetic works through a series of interactive activities while working together within a cooperative learning environment. Students will analyze and discuss various nuances of Poe's life and poems and write an explanatory essay about what they learned.

Zany's Joke Shop Dilemma:

The main problem is that students will help rank products offered at Zany Joke Shop. They will be ranking the products from best overall to least. By helping rank the products, the student will help create a purchase order for the store. They will be expected to create a device to rank the products offered from best to worst. Students will be given tables that show: cost per product, customer rating, profits made and affordability. The second letter offers students a twist since new products are being introduced for the store to sell and a budget constraint will be introduced.

Model Eliciting Activities, MEAs, are open-ended, interdisciplinary problem-solving activities that are meant to reveal students’ thinking about the concepts embedded in realistic situations. Click here to learn more about MEAs and how they can transform your classroom.

Literary Analysis of "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi" and Narrative Writing Activity:

In this lesson, students will be able to analyze how Rudyard Kipling uses theme and short story elements to create the classic story, "Rikki-Tikki-Tavi." Students will engage in various pre-reading activities to scaffold background knowledge, vocabulary, and ability to identify theme. Working in cooperative groups will allow students to discuss and evaluate their learning in a non-threatening environment. At the conclusion of the lesson, students will write an original narrative using what they learned in this lesson to create their own story.

Jabberwocky - Is it all a bunch of nonsense?:

Students will study the poem "Jabberwocky" by Lewis Carroll and focus on how the nonsense words and use of figurative language help the poem tell a story. They will use context clues to determine the meaning of unknown words and phrases. They will explore how an author's use of figurative language can affect the mood and tone of the literary piece. They will also focus upon citing text evidence in order to define nonsense words and explain the main idea of the poem. Students will view a variety of video presentations of the poem in order to increase comprehension. Finally, they will write coherently and purposefully to compare "Jabberwocky" to another nonsense poem, an excerpt from Dr. Seuss's The Lorax.

Close Reading Exemplar: "Unbroken" and "Farewell to Manzanar":

As students will have previous exposure to the historical themes and factual information about the attacks on Pearl Harbor, the United States involvement in WWII, and the internment of Japanese in camps throughout the western United States, this lesson exemplar will allow students to participate in critical discussion of two stories that illuminate important, yet divergent, experiences of war and conflict. This lesson exemplar will push students to think critically about the experience of wartime as felt by both soldiers and civilians as they navigated specific trials that were a part of their direct or peripheral involvement in WWII.

Close Reading Exemplar: Tom Sawyer:

The goal of this one day exemplar is to give students the opportunity to use the reading and writing habits they've been practicing on a regular basis to discover the rich humor and moral lesson embedded in Twain's text. By reading and rereading the passage closely, and focusing their reading through a series of questions and discussion about the text, students will explore the problem Tom Sawyer faced and how he "solved" his conundrum. When combined with writing about the passage, students will learn to appreciate how Twain's humor contains a deeper message and derive satisfaction from the struggle to master complex text. At the end of the lesson, students are provided two writing prompts to constructive a narrative inspired by Twain's text.

Government Knows Best!:

Government take over is upon the United States--well, it is in the short story "Harrison Bergeron" by Kurt Vonnegut, Jr! In this lesson, students in your classroom will question if we are all treated equally and if we really want equality "every which way." This close reading lesson allows students to explore cause and effect relationships in this engaging, dystopian short story. Students are also challenged to compare the messages in "Harrison Bergeron" with the poem "Government of Evil." Graphic organizers, text-dependent questions, answer keys, and a writing rubric for the summative assessment are included with the lesson.

Teaching Idea

Name Description
ABC Vocabulary Books:

This series of lessons guides students through the process of creating their own ABC book. This lesson can be used with any unit of study. This would be a great cross-curriculum activity.



Student Resources

Vetted resources students can use to learn the concepts and skills in this topic.

Original Student Tutorials

Title Description
The Sounds of "Sympathy": Analyzing Rhyme and Repetition in Poetry:

Learn how the sound devices of rhyme and repetition are used in the poem "Sympathy" by Paul Laurence Dunbar and analyze how they contribute to the poem's meaning. 

How Form Contributes to Meaning in Shakespeare’s "Sonnet 18":

Explore the form and meaning of William Shakespeare's “Sonnet 18.”  In this interactive tutorial, you’ll examine how specific words and phrases contribute to meaning in the sonnet, select the features of a Shakespearean sonnet in the poem, identify the solution to a problem, and explain how the form of a Shakespearean sonnet contributes to the meaning of "Sonnet 18."

The Mystery of the Past: How the Form of a Villanelle Contributes to Meaning in "The House on the Hill":

Explore the mysterious poem “The House on the Hill” by Edwin Arlington Robinson in this interactive tutorial. As you explore the poem's message about the past, you’ll identify the features of a villanelle in the poem. By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a villanelle contributes to the poem's meaning.

A Giant of Size and Power – Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in "The New Colossus":

Continue to explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem "The New Colossus." By the end of this tutorial, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. 

Make sure to complete Part One before beginning Part Two.

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of 'The New Colossus.'"

A Giant of Size and Power -- Part One: Exploring the Significance of "The New Colossus":

In Part One, explore the significance of the famous poem “The New Colossus” by Emma Lazarus, lines from which are engraved on the pedestal of the Statue of Liberty. 

This famous poem also happens to be in the form of a sonnet. In Part Two of this two-part series, you’ll identify the features of a sonnet in the poem. By the end of this tutorial series, you should be able to explain how the form of a sonnet contributes to the poem's meaning. Make sure to complete both parts!

Click HERE to launch "A Giant of Size and Power -- Part Two: How the Form of a Sonnet Contributes to Meaning in 'The New Colossus.'"

Spread Your Wings: Structure & Meaning in Poetry:

Learn how poems are organized to express and develop themes. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read "My Pretty Rose Tree" by William Blake and "'Hope' is the thing with feathers" by Emily Dickinson. Using these classic poems, you'll examine the structure of poetry and review several relevant terms including stanzas, diction, and mood

Fender Bender: Analyzing Points of View:

Learn to analyze the differing points of view of various characters within a story. In this interactive tutorial, you'll read a short story about a fender bender that occurs between a teacher and student and identify the objective and subjective statements made by each character as they relay their version of events.

Analyzing POEtry:

Learn how to identify sound devices such as repetition, alliteration, and assonance in the poems of Edgar Allan Poe. As you complete this interactive tutorial, you'll read portions of "The Raven," "The Bells," and "Annabel Lee."