|SS.5.A.1.1:|| Use primary and secondary sources to understand history.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, diaries, letters, newspapers, audio/video recordings, pictures, photographs, maps, graphs. Examples of all of these forms of primary sources may be found on various websites such as the site for The Kinsey Collection.
|SS.5.A.1.2:|| Utilize timelines to identify and discuss American History time periods. |
|SS.5.A.2.1:|| Compare cultural aspects of ancient American civilizations (Aztecs/Mayas; Mound Builders/Anasazi/Inuit).|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, those listed in the benchmark.
|SS.5.A.2.2:|| Identify Native American tribes from different geographic regions of North America (cliff dwellers and Pueblo people of the desert Southwest, coastal tribes of the Pacific Northwest, nomadic nations of the Great Plains, woodland tribes east of the Mississippi River).|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, those listed in the benchmark.
|SS.5.A.2.3:|| Compare cultural aspects of Native American tribes from different geographic regions of North America including but not limited to clothing, shelter, food, major beliefs and practices, music, art, and interactions with the environment. |
|SS.5.A.3.1:|| Describe technological developments that shaped European exploration.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, orienteering compass, sextant, astrolabe, seaworthy ships, and gunpowder.
|SS.5.A.3.2:|| Investigate (nationality, sponsoring country, motives, dates and routes of travel, accomplishments) the European explorers.|
In addition to those listed in the benchmark, examples may include, but are not limited to, Spanish, English, Dutch, Icelandic (Viking), and Swedish explorers.
|SS.5.A.3.3:|| Describe interactions among Native Americans, Africans, English, French, Dutch, and Spanish for control of North America.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, diseases,agriculture, slavery, fur trade, military alliances, treaties, cultural interchanges.
|SS.5.A.4.1:|| Identify the economic, political and socio-cultural motivation for colonial settlement.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Puritans, Quakers, and Catholics fleeing from religious persecution, debtor settlements in Georgia, military stronghold and protection of trade routes at St. Augustine, establishment of the Jamestown colony for profit, and French and Dutch competition for the fur trade..
|SS.5.A.4.2:|| Compare characteristics of New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, colonial governments, geographic influences, resources and economic systems, occupations, religion, education, and social patterns.
|SS.5.A.4.3:|| Identify significant individuals responsible for the development of the New England, Middle, and Southern colonies.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, William Penn, Pontiac, Olaudah Equiano, George Whitefield, Roger Williams, John Winthrop, John Smith, John Rolfe, James Oglethorpe, Anne Hutchinson, Lord Baltimore.
|SS.5.A.4.4:|| Demonstrate an understanding of political, economic, and social aspects of daily colonial life in the thirteen colonies.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, town meetings, farming, occupation, slavery, bartering, education, games, science, technology, transportation, religion.
|SS.5.A.4.5:|| Explain the importance of Triangular Trade linking Africa, the West Indies, the British Colonies, and Europe.
|SS.5.A.4.6:|| Describe the introduction, impact, and role of slavery in the colonies.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, cultural contributions, skilled labor, the move away from indentured servitude, growth of plantations, differences in treatment of slaves by region and assigned job (house slave v. field slave).
|SS.5.A.5.1:|| Identify and explain significant events leading up to the American Revolution.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the French and Indian War, the Stamp Act, the Townshend Acts, the Boston Massacre, the Boston Tea Party, the Coercive Acts, the Powder Alarms.
|SS.5.A.5.2:|| Identify significant individuals and groups who played a role in the American Revolution.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, King George III, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, John Adams, John Hancock, Crispus Attucks, Ben Franklin, Paul Revere and Patriots, Sons of Liberty, Daughters of Liberty, Continental Congress, James Armistead, Francis Marion.
|SS.5.A.5.3:|| Explain the significance of historical documents including key political concepts, origins of these concepts, and their role in American independence.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the Magna Carta, the English Bill of Rights, the Mayflower Compact, Common Sense, the Declaration of Independence.
|SS.5.A.5.4:|| Examine and explain the changing roles and impact of significant women during the American Revolution.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Abigail Adams, Martha Washington, Phyllis Wheatley, Mercy Otis Warren, Molly Pitcher, Deborah Sampson, Margaret Gage.
|SS.5.A.5.5:|| Examine and compare major battles and military campaigns of the American Revolution.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Lexington and Concord, Saratoga, Valley Forge, Yorktown, Savannah, Charleston, Trenton, Princeton, Bunker Hill.
|SS.5.A.5.6:|| Identify the contributions of foreign alliances and individuals to the outcome of the Revolution.|
Examples my include, but are not limited to, France, Lafayette, Spain, de Galvez, von Stueben (aka de Steuben), Pulaski, Haiti.
|SS.5.A.5.7:|| Explain economic, military, and political factors which led to the end of the Revolutionary War.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, foreign alliances, rising cost for England, Treaty of Paris.
|SS.5.A.5.8:|| Evaluate the personal and political hardships resulting from the American Revolution.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, financing the war effort, war time inflation, profiteering, loss of family and property, dissent within families and between colonies.
|SS.5.A.5.9:|| Discuss the impact and significance of land policies developed under the Confederation Congress (Northwest Ordinance of 1787).|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, those listed in the benchmark.
|SS.5.A.5.10:|| Examine the significance of the Constitution including its key political concepts, origins of those concepts, and their role in American democracy.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, liberty, representative government, limited government, individual rights, "bundle of compromises."
|SS.5.A.6.1:|| Describe the causes and effects of the Louisiana Purchase. |
|SS.5.A.6.2:|| Identify roles and contributions of significant people during the period of westward expansion.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Lewis and Clark, Sacagawea, York, Thomas Jefferson, Andrew Jackson, Tecumseh, Jean Baptiste Point Du Sable.
|SS.5.A.6.3:|| Examine 19th century advancements (canals, roads, steamboats, flat boats, overland wagons, Pony Express, railroads) in transportation and communication.|
In addition to those liseted in the benchmark, examples may include, but are not limited to, the telegraph, Morse Code.
|SS.5.A.6.4:|| Explain the importance of the explorations west of the Mississippi River.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, Zebulon Pike, John Fremont, the Mormon migration, the Forty-niners, the Oregon Trail.
|SS.5.A.6.5:|| Identify the causes and effects of the War of 1812.|
Examples may include, but are notl imited to, nationalism, neutrality in trade, impressment, border forts.
|SS.5.A.6.6:|| Explain how westward expansion affected Native Americans.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, the Trail of Tears and Indian Removal Act.
|SS.5.A.6.7:|| Discuss the concept of Manifest Destiny. |
|SS.5.A.6.8:|| Describe the causes and effects of the Missouri Compromise. |
|SS.5.A.6.9:|| Describe the hardships of settlers along the overland trails to the west.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, location of routes, terrain, rivers, climate, vegetation, conflicts with Native Americans.
|SS.5.C.1.1:|| Explain how and why the United States government was created. |
|SS.5.C.1.2:|| Define a constitution, and discuss its purposes.
|SS.5.C.1.3:|| Explain the definition and origin of rights.|
Examples are John Locke's "state of nature" philosophy, natural rights: rights to life, liberty, property.
|SS.5.C.1.4:|| Identify the Declaration of Independence's grievances and Articles of Confederation's weaknesses. |
|SS.5.C.1.5:|| Describe how concerns about individual rights led to the inclusion of the Bill of Rights in the U.S. Constitution. |
|SS.5.C.1.6:|| Compare Federalist and Anti-Federalist views of government. |
|SS.5.C.2.1:|| Differentiate political ideas of Patriots, Loyalists, and "undecideds" during the American Revolution.
|SS.5.C.2.2:|| Compare forms of political participation in the colonial period to today.|
Examples are who participated and how they participated.
|SS.5.C.2.3:|| Analyze how the Constitution has expanded voting rights from our nation's early history to today. |
|SS.5.C.2.4:|| Evaluate the importance of civic responsibilities in American democracy.|
Examples are respecting the law, voting, serving on a jury, paying taxes, keeping informed on public issues, protesting.
|SS.5.C.2.5:|| Identify ways good citizens go beyond basic civic and political responsibilities to improve government and society.
Examples are running for office, initiating changes in laws or public policy, working on political campaigns, working with others on civic issues.
|SS.5.C.3.1:|| Describe the organizational structure (legislative, executive, judicial branches) and powers of the federal government as defined in Articles I, II, and III of the U.S. Constitution.
|SS.5.C.3.2:|| Explain how popular sovereignty, rule of law, separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism, and individual rights limit the powers of the federal government as expressed in the Constitution and Bill of Rights. |
|SS.5.C.3.3:|| Give examples of powers granted to the federal government and those reserved for the states.|
Examples are coining money, declaring war, creating public schools, making traffic laws.
|SS.5.C.3.4:|| Describe the amendment process as defined in Article V of the Constitution and give examples.|
Examples are the Bill of Rights and 26th Amendment.
|SS.5.C.3.5:|| Identify the fundamental rights of all citizens as enumerated in the Bill of Rights. |
|SS.5.C.3.6:|| Examine the foundations of the United States legal system by recognizing the role of the courts in interpreting law and settling conflicts. |
|SS.5.E.1.1:|| Identify how trade promoted economic growth in North America from pre-Columbian times to 1850.|
Examples are Triangular Trade and tobacco.
|SS.5.E.1.2:|| Describe a market economy, and give examples of how the colonial and early American economy exhibited these characteristics.
|SS.5.E.1.3:|| Trace the development of technology and the impact of major inventions on business productivity during the early development of the United States.|
Examples are Franklin stove, bifocals, double sided needle, cotton gin, Turtle submarine.
|SS.5.E.2.1:|| Recognize the positive and negative effects of voluntary trade among Native Americans, European explorers, and colonists. |
|SS.5.G.1.1:|| Interpret current and historical information using a variety of geographic tools.|
Examples are maps, globes, Geographic Information Systems (GIS).
|SS.5.G.1.2:|| Use latitude and longitude to locate places. |
|SS.5.G.1.3:|| Identify major United States physical features on a map of North America.|
Examples are Rocky Mountains, Appalachian Mountains, Mississippi River, Great Lakes, Great Plains, Rocky Mountains, Rio Grande, Lake Okeechobee, Mojave Desert.
|SS.5.G.1.4:|| Construct maps, charts, and graphs to display geographic information. |
|SS.5.G.1.5:|| Identify and locate the original thirteen colonies on a map of North America. |
|SS.5.G.1.6:|| Locate and identify states, capitals, and United States Territories on a map. |
|SS.5.G.2.1:|| Describe the push-pull factors (economy, natural hazards, tourism, climate, physical features) that influenced boundary changes within the United States.
|SS.5.G.3.1:|| Describe the impact that past natural events have had on human and physical environments in the United States through 1850.|
An example is the harsh winter in Jamestown.
|SS.5.G.4.1:|| Use geographic knowledge and skills when discussing current events.|
Examples are recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing.
|SS.5.G.4.2:|| Use geography concepts and skills such as recognizing patterns, mapping, graphing to find solutions for local, state, or national problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.1.1:|| Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. |
Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
- Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
- Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
- Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
- Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
- Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
- Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
- Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
- Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
|MA.K12.MTR.2.1:|| Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. |
Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
- Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
- Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
- Express connections between concepts and representations.
- Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:
- Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
- Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
- Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
- Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
|MA.K12.MTR.3.1:|| Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. |
Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
- Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
- Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
- Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
- Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency:
- Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
- Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
- Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
|MA.K12.MTR.4.1:|| Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. |
Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
- Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
- Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
- Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
- Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
- Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:
- Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
- Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
- Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
- Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
|MA.K12.MTR.5.1:|| Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. |
Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Focus on relevant details within a problem.
- Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
- Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
- Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
- Look for similarities among problems.
- Connect solutions of problems to more complicated large-scale situations.
Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:
- Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
- Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
- Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
- Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
|MA.K12.MTR.6.1:|| Assess the reasonableness of solutions. |
Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Estimate to discover possible solutions.
- Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
- Check calculations when solving problems.
- Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
- Evaluate results based on the given context.
Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions:
- Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
- Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
- Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
- Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
|MA.K12.MTR.7.1:|| Apply mathematics to real-world contexts. |
Mathematicians who apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
- Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
- Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to real-world contexts:
- Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
- Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
- Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
- Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. |
|HE.5.C.2.4:|| Give examples of school and public health policies that influence health promotion and disease prevention.|
Head-lice guidelines, seat-belt and child-restraint laws, helmet laws, fire/severe weather/lockdown drills, school-bus rules, and immunization requirements.