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MA.6.AR.1.1:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, translate written descriptions into algebraic expressions and translate algebraic expressions into written descriptions.
Examples: The algebraic expression 7.2x20 can be used to describe the daily profit of a company who makes $7.20 per product sold with daily expenses of $20.  

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MA.6.AR.1.AP.1:  Write or select an algebraic expression that represents a realworld situation. 

MA.6.AR.1.2:  Translate a realworld written description into an algebraic inequality in the form of x > a, x < a, x ≥ a or x ≤ a. Represent the inequality on a number line. Clarifications: Clarification 1: Variables may be on the left or right side of the inequality symbol. 
Examples:
Mrs. Anna told her class that they will get a pizza if the class has an average of at least 83 out of 100 correct questions on the semester exam. The inequality g ≥ 83 can be used to represent the situation where students receive a pizza and the inequality g < 83 can be used to represent the situation where students do not receive a pizza.  

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MA.6.AR.1.AP.2:  Write or select an inequality that represents a realworld situation. 

MA.6.AR.1.3:  Evaluate algebraic expressions using substitution and order of operations.
Examples: Evaluate the expression , where a=1 and b=15.  

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MA.6.AR.1.AP.3:  Solve an expression using substitution with no more than two operations. 

MA.6.AR.1.4:  Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent algebraic expressions with integer coefficients.
Examples: Example: The expression 5(3x+1) can be rewritten equivalently as 15x+5.
Example: If the expression 2x+3x represents the profit the cheerleading team can make when selling the same number of cupcakes, sold for $2 each, and brownies, sold for $3 each. The expression 5x can express the total profit.
 

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MA.6.AR.1.AP.4:  Use tools or models to combine like terms in an expression with no more than four operations. 

MA.6.AR.2.1:  Given an equation or inequality and a specified set of integer values, determine which values make the equation or inequality true or false.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Problems include the variable in multiple terms or on either side of the equal sign or inequality symbol. 
Examples: Determine which of the following values make the inequality x+1<2 true: 4,2,0,1.  

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MA.6.AR.2.AP.1:  Choose which values, from a set of five or fewer integers, make an equation or inequality true. 

MA.6.AR.2.2:  Write and solve onestep equations in one variable within a mathematical or realworld context using addition and subtraction, where all terms and solutions are integers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes using manipulatives, drawings, number lines and inverse operations.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes equations in the forms x+p=q and p+x=q, where x,p and q are any integer.
Clarification 3: Problems include equations where the variable may be on either side of the equal sign.

Examples: The equations 35+x=17, 17=35+x and 17x=35 can represent the question “How many units to the right is 17 from 35 on the number line?”  

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MA.6.AR.2.AP.2:  Solve realworld, onestep linear equations using addition and subtraction involving integers. 

MA.6.AR.2.3:  Write and solve onestep equations in one variable within a mathematical or realworld context using multiplication and division, where all terms and solutions are integers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes using manipulatives, drawings, number lines and inverse operations.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes equations in the forms x/p = q, where p ≠ 0, and px = q.
Clarification 3: Problems include equations where the variable may be on either side of the equal sign.  

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MA.6.AR.2.AP.3:  Solve realworld, onestep linear equations using multiplication and division involving integers. 

MA.6.AR.2.4:  Determine the unknown decimal or fraction in an equation involving any of the four operations, relating three numbers, with the unknown in any position.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on using algebraic reasoning, drawings, and mental math to determine unknowns.
Clarification 2: Problems include the unknown and different operations on either side of the equal sign. All terms and solutions are limited to positive rational numbers.

Examples: Given the equation , x can be determined to be because is more than .  

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MA.6.AR.2.AP.4:  Solve a onestep equation using fractions with like denominators or decimals with place value ranging from the thousand to the thousandths. 

MA.6.AR.3.1:  Given a realworld context, write and interpret ratios to show the relative sizes of two quantities using appropriate notation: , a to b, or a:b where b ≠ 0.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the understanding that a ratio can be described as a comparison of two quantities in either the same or different units.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes using manipulatives, drawings, models and words to interpret parttopart ratios and parttowhole ratios.
Clarification 3: The values of a and b are limited to whole numbers.
 

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MA.6.AR.3.AP.1:  Given a realworld context, write and interpret ratios to show the relative sizes of two quantities using notation: a/b, a to b, or a:b where b ≠ 0 with guidance and support. 

MA.6.AR.3.2:  Given a realworld context, determine a rate for a ratio of quantities with different units. Calculate and interpret the corresponding unit rate.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes using manipulatives, drawings, models and words and making connections between ratios, rates and unit rates.
Clarification 2: Problems will not include conversions between customary and metric systems.

Examples: Tamika can read 500 words in 3 minutes. Her reading rate can be described as which is equivalent to the unit rate of words per minute.  

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MA.6.AR.3.AP.2:  Given a rate, calculate the unit rate for a ratio with different units. 

MA.6.AR.3.3:  Extend previous understanding of fractions and numerical patterns to generate or complete a two or threecolumn table to display equivalent parttopart ratios and parttoparttowhole ratios.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes using twocolumn tables (e.g., a relationship between two variables) and threecolumn tables (e.g., parttoparttowhole relationship) to generate conversion charts and mixture charts. 
Examples: The table below expresses the relationship between the number of ounces of yellow and blue paints used to create a new color. Determine the ratios and complete the table.
Yellow (part)  1.5  3   9  Blue (part)  2  4    New Color (whole)    12  21 
 

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MA.6.AR.3.AP.3:  Given a visual representation, write or select a ratio that describes the ratio relationship between parttopart and parttowhole ratios. 

MA.6.AR.3.4:  Apply ratio relationships to solve mathematical and realworld problems involving percentages using the relationship between two quantities.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes using manipulatives, drawings, number lines and inverse operations.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes equations in the forms , where p≠0, and px=q. Clarification 3: Problems include equations where the variable may be on either side of the equal sign. 
Examples: Gerald is trying to gain muscle and needs to consume more protein every day. If he has a protein shake that contain 32 grams and the entire shake is 340 grams, what percentage of the entire shake is protein? What is the ratio between grams of protein and grams of nonprotein?  

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MA.6.AR.3.AP.4:  Calculate a percentage of quantity as rate per 100 using models (e.g., percent bars or 10 × 10 grids). 

MA.6.AR.3.5:  Solve mathematical and realworld problems involving ratios, rates and unit rates, including comparisons, mixtures, ratios of lengths and conversions within the same measurement system.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the use of tables, tape diagrams and number lines.  

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MA.6.AR.3.AP.5a:  Use tools, models or manipulatives to solve problems involving ratio relationships including mixtures and ratios of length.  MA.6.AR.3.AP.5b:  Use tools, models or manipulatives to solve ratio, rate or unit rate problems involving conversions within the same measurement system. 

MA.6.DP.1.1:  Recognize and formulate a statistical question that would generate numerical data.
Examples: The question “How many minutes did you spend on mathematics homework last night?” can be used to generate numerical data in one variable.  

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MA.6.DP.1.AP.1:  Identify statistical questions from a list that would generate numerical data. 

MA.6.DP.1.2:  Given a numerical data set within a realworld context, find and interpret mean, median, mode and range.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Numerical data is limited to positive rational numbers. 
Examples: The data set {15,0,32,24,0,17,42,0,29,120,0,20}, collected based on minutes spent on homework, has a mode of 0.  

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MA.6.DP.1.AP.2a:  Use tools to identify and calculate the mean, median, mode and range represented in a set of data with no more than five elements.  MA.6.DP.1.AP.2b:  Identify and explain what the mean and mode represent in a set of data with no more than five elements. 

MA.6.DP.1.3:  Given a box plot within a realworld context, determine the minimum, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile and the maximum. Use this summary of the data to describe the spread and distribution of the data.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes describing range, interquartile range, halves and quarters of the data. 
Examples: The middle 50% of the population can be determined by finding the interval between the upper quartile and the lower quartile.  

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MA.6.DP.1.AP.3:  Given a box plot, identify the value of the minimum, the lower quartile, the median, the upper quartile and the maximum. 

MA.6.DP.1.4:  Given a histogram or line plot within a realworld context, qualitatively describe and interpret the spread and distribution of the data, including any symmetry, skewness, gaps, clusters, outliers and the range. 

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MA.6.DP.1.AP.4:  Given a histogram or a line plot, describe the physical features of the graph. 

MA.6.DP.1.5:  Create box plots and histograms to represent sets of numerical data within realworld contexts.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes collecting data and discussing ways to collect truthful data to construct graphical representations.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, it is the expectation to use appropriate titles, labels, scales and units when constructing graphical representations.
Clarification 3: Numerical data is limited to positive rational numbers.

Examples: The numerical data set {15,0,32,24,0,17,42,0,29,120,0,20}, collected based on minutes spent on homework, can be represented graphically using a box plot.  

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MA.6.DP.1.AP.5:  Create histograms to represent sets of numerical data with 10 or fewer elements. 

MA.6.DP.1.6:  Given a realworld scenario, determine and describe how changes in data values impact measures of center and variation.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes choosing the measure of center or measure of variation depending on the scenario.
Clarification 2: The measures of center are limited to mean and median. The measures of variation are limited to range and interquartile range.
Clarification 3: Numerical data is limited to positive rational numbers.
 

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MA.6.DP.1.AP.6:  Calculate and identify changes (increase or decrease) in the median, mode or range when a data value is added or subtracted from a data set. 

MA.6.GR.1.1:  Extend previous understanding of the coordinate plane to plot rational number ordered pairs in all four quadrants and on both axes. Identify the x or yaxis as the line of reflection when two ordered pairs have an opposite x or ycoordinate. 

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MA.6.GR.1.AP.1:  Plot integer ordered pairs in all four quadrants and on both axes. 

MA.6.GR.1.2:  Find distances between ordered pairs, limited to the same xcoordinate or the same ycoordinate, represented on the coordinate plane. 

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MA.6.GR.1.AP.2:  Count the distance between two ordered pairs with the same xcoordinate or the same ycoordinate. 

MA.6.GR.1.3:  Solve mathematical and realworld problems by plotting points on a coordinate plane, including finding the perimeter or area of a rectangle.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes finding distances between points, computing dimensions of a rectangle or determining a fourth vertex of a rectangle.
Clarification 2: Problems involving rectangles are limited to cases where the sides are parallel to the axes.
 

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MA.6.GR.1.AP.3:  Given a rectangle plotted on the coordinate plane, find the perimeter or area of the rectangle. 

MA.6.GR.2.1:  Derive a formula for the area of a right triangle using a rectangle. Apply a formula to find the area of a triangle.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the relationship between the area of a rectangle and the area of a right triangle.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to know from memory a formula for the area of a triangle.
 

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MA.6.GR.2.AP.1:  Given the formula, find the area of a triangle. 

MA.6.GR.2.2:  Solve mathematical and realworld problems involving the area of quadrilaterals and composite figures by decomposing them into triangles or rectangles.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Problem types include finding area of composite shapes and determining missing dimensions.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to know from memory a formula for the area of a rectangle and triangle.
Clarification 3: Dimensions are limited to positive rational numbers.
 

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MA.6.GR.2.AP.2:  Decompose quadrilaterals and composite figures into simple shapes (rectangles or triangles) to measure area. 

MA.6.GR.2.3:  Solve mathematical and realworld problems involving the volume of right rectangular prisms with positive rational number edge lengths using a visual model and a formula.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Problem types include finding the volume or a missing dimension of a rectangular prism.  

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MA.6.GR.2.AP.3:  Given a realworld problem, find the volume of a rectangular prism using a visual model and the formula. 

MA.6.GR.2.4:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, find the surface area of right rectangular prisms and right rectangular pyramids using the figure’s net.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on representing a right rectangular prism and right rectangular pyramid with its net and on the connection between the surface area of a figure and its net.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to find the surface area when given a net or when given a threedimensional figure.
Clarification 3: Problems involving right rectangular pyramids are limited to cases where the heights of triangles are given.
Clarification 4: Dimensions are limited to positive rational numbers.
 

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MA.6.GR.2.AP.4:  Find the surface area of right rectangular prisms by adding the areas of the shapes forming the twodimensional net. 

MA.6.NSO.1.1:  Extend previous understanding of numbers to define rational numbers. Plot, order and compare rational numbers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to plot, order and compare positive and negative rational numbers when given in the same form and to plot, order and compare positive rational numbers when given in different forms (fraction, decimal, percentage).
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to use symbols (<, > or =).
 

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MA.6.NSO.1.AP.1:  Plot, order and compare rational numbers (positive and negative integers within 10 from 0, fractions with common denominators, decimals up to the hundredths and percentages) in the same form. 

MA.6.NSO.1.2:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, represent quantities that have opposite direction using rational numbers. Compare them on a number line and explain the meaning of zero within its context.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes vertical and horizontal number lines, context referring to distances, temperatures and finances and using informal verbal comparisons, such as, lower, warmer or more in debt.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to compare positive and negative rational numbers when given in the same form.

Examples: Jasmine is on a cruise and is going on a scuba diving excursion. Her elevations of 10 feet above sea level and 8 feet below sea level can be compared on a number line, where 0 represents sea level.  

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MA.6.NSO.1.AP.2:  Represent positive and negative numbers in the same form on a number line given a realworld situation and explain the meaning of zero within its context. 

MA.6.NSO.1.3:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, interpret the absolute value of a number as the distance from zero on a number line. Find the absolute value of rational numbers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the connection of absolute value to mirror images about zero and to opposites.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes vertical and horizontal number lines and context referring to distances, temperature and finances.
 

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MA.6.NSO.1.AP.3:  Find absolute value of a rational number ranging from –30 to 30 using a number line. 

MA.6.NSO.1.4:  Solve mathematical and realworld problems involving absolute value, including the comparison of absolute value.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Absolute value situations include distances, temperatures and finances.
Clarification 2: Problems involving calculations with absolute value are limited to two or fewer operations.
Clarification 3: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to use integers only.

Examples: Michael has a lemonade stand which costs $10 to start up. If he makes $5 the first day, he can determine whether he made a profit so far by comparing 10 and 5.  

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MA.6.NSO.1.AP.4:  Use manipulatives, models or tools to compare absolute value in mathematical and realworld problems. 

MA.6.NSO.2.1:  Multiply and divide positive multidigit numbers with decimals to the thousandths, including using a standard algorithm with procedural fluency.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Multidigit decimals are limited to no more than 5 total digits.  

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MA.6.NSO.2.AP.1:  Solve onestep multiplication and division problems involving positive decimals whose place value ranges from the tens to the hundredths places. 

MA.6.NSO.2.2:  Extend previous understanding of multiplication and division to compute products and quotients of positive fractions by positive fractions, including mixed numbers, with procedural fluency.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on making connections between visual models, the relationship between multiplication and division, reciprocals and algorithms.  

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MA.6.NSO.2.AP.2:  Use tools to calculate the product and quotient of positive fractions by positive fractions, including mixed numbers, using the standard algorithms. 

MA.6.NSO.2.3:  Solve multistep realworld problems involving any of the four operations with positive multidigit decimals or positive fractions, including mixed numbers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, it is not the expectation to include both decimals and fractions within a single problem.  

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MA.6.NSO.2.AP.3a:  Solve onestep realworld problems involving any of the four operations with positive decimals ranging from the hundreds to hundredth place value.  MA.6.NSO.2.AP.3b:  Solve onestep realworld problems involving any of the four operations with positive fractions and mixed numbers with like denominators. 

MA.6.NSO.3.1:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, find the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, expectations include finding greatest common factor within 1,000 and least common multiple with factors to 25.Clarification 2: Instruction includes finding the greatest common factor of the numerator and denominator of a fraction to simplify a fraction. 
Examples: Example: Middleton Middle School’s band has an upcoming winter concert which will have several performances. The bandleader would like to divide the students into concert groups with the same number of flute players, the same number of clarinet players and the same number of violin players in each group. There are a total of 15 students who play the flute, 27 students who play the clarinet and 12 students who play the violin. How many separate groups can be formed?
Example: Adam works out every 8 days and Susan works out every 12 days. If both Adam and Susan work out today, how many days until they work out on the same day again?
 

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MA.6.NSO.3.AP.1:  Use tools to find the greatest common factor and least common multiple of two whole numbers 50 or less. 

MA.6.NSO.3.2:  Rewrite the sum of two composite whole numbers having a common factor, as a common factor multiplied by the sum of two whole numbers.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes using the distributive property to generate equivalent expressions.  

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MA.6.NSO.3.AP.2:  Use the distributive property to express a number as the sum of two whole numbers multiplied by a common factor. 

MA.6.NSO.3.3:  Evaluate positive rational numbers and integers with natural number exponents.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, expectations include using natural number exponents up to 5.  

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MA.6.NSO.3.AP.3a:  Identify what an exponent represents (e.g., 8³= 8 × 8 × 8).  MA.6.NSO.3.AP.3b:  Solve numerical expressions involving wholenumber bases and exponents (e.g.,5+×6=101). 

MA.6.NSO.3.4:  Express composite whole numbers as a product of prime factors with natural number exponents. 

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MA.6.NSO.3.AP.4:  4 Use a tool to show the prime factors of a composite whole number (e.g., 20 = 2 × 2 × 5). 

MA.6.NSO.3.5:  Rewrite positive rational numbers in different but equivalent forms including fractions, terminating decimals and percentages.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Rational numbers include decimal equivalence up to the thousandths place. 
Examples: The number can be written equivalently as 1.625 or 162.5%  

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MA.6.NSO.3.AP.5:  Rewrite a positive rational number 3 or less, as a fraction, decimal or a percent. 

MA.6.NSO.4.1:  Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with whole numbers to add and subtract integers with procedural fluency.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction begins with the use of manipulatives, models and number lines working towards becoming procedurally fluent by the end of grade 6. Clarification 2: Instruction focuses on the inverse relationship between the operations of addition and subtraction. If p and q are integers, then pq=p+(q) and p+q=p(q).  

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MA.6.NSO.4.AP.1:  Use tools to add and subtract integers between 50 and −50. 

MA.6.NSO.4.2:  Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with whole numbers to multiply and divide integers with procedural fluency. 

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MA.6.NSO.4.AP.2:  Use tools to multiply and divide integers between 20 and −20. 

MA.K12.MTR.1.1:  Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
 Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
 Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
 Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
 Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
 Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
 Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
 Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
 Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
 Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
 
MA.K12.MTR.2.1:  Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:  Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
 Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
 Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
 Express connections between concepts and representations.
 Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:  Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
 Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
 Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
 Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
 
MA.K12.MTR.3.1:  Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:  Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
 Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
 Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
 Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
 Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency: Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
 Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
 Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
 
MA.K12.MTR.4.1:  Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:  Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
 Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
 Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
 Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
 Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
 Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others: Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
 Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
 Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
 Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
 
MA.K12.MTR.5.1:  Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:  Focus on relevant details within a problem.
 Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
 Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
 Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
 Look for similarities among problems.
 Connect solutions of problems to more complicated largescale situations.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts: Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
 Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
 Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
 Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
 
MA.K12.MTR.6.1:  Assess the reasonableness of solutions. Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:  Estimate to discover possible solutions.
 Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
 Check calculations when solving problems.
 Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
 Evaluate results based on the given context.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions: Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
 Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
 Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
 Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
 
MA.K12.MTR.7.1:  Apply mathematics to realworld contexts. Mathematicians who apply mathematics to realworld contexts:  Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
 Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
 Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to realworld contexts: Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
 Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
 Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
 Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
 
ELA.K12.EE.1.1:  Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.Clarifications: K1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.23 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations. 45 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor. 68 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation. 912 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
 
ELA.K12.EE.2.1:  Read and comprehend gradelevel complex texts proficiently.Clarifications: See Text Complexity for gradelevel complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.  
ELA.K12.EE.3.1:  Make inferences to support comprehension.Clarifications: Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.  
ELA.K12.EE.4.1:  Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.Clarifications: In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.In grades 12, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations. In grades 312, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
 
ELA.K12.EE.5.1:  Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.Clarifications: Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.  
ELA.K12.EE.6.1:  Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.Clarifications: In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.  
ELD.K12.ELL.MA.1:  English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. 
ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:  English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. 