Introduction to the Social Sciences (#2104300) 

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Course Standards

Name Description
SS.912.A.1.1: Describe the importance of historiography, which includes how historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted, when interpreting events in history.
SS.912.A.1.2: Utilize a variety of primary and secondary sources to identify author, historical significance, audience, and authenticity to understand a historical period.
Examples of primary and secondary sources may be found on various websites such as the site for The Kinsey Collection.
SS.912.A.1.3: Utilize timelines to identify the time sequence of historical data.
SS.912.A.1.4: Analyze how images, symbols, objects, cartoons, graphs, charts, maps, and artwork may be used to interpret the significance of time periods and events from the past.
SS.912.A.1.5: Evaluate the validity, reliability, bias, and authenticity of current events and Internet resources.

Students should be encouraged to utilize FINDS (Focus, Investigate, Note, Develop, Score), Florida's research process model accessible at:


SS.912.A.1.6: Use case studies to explore social, political, legal, and economic relationships in history.
SS.912.A.1.7: Describe various socio-cultural aspects of American life including arts, artifacts, literature, education, and publications.
SS.912.A.3.10: Review different economic and philosophic ideologies.
Economic examples may include, but are not limited to, market economy, mixed economy, planned economy and philosophic examples are capitalism, socialism, communism, anarchy.

This benchmark is annually evaluated on the United States History End-of-Course Assessment. For more information on how this benchmark is evaluated view the United States History End-of-Course Assessment Test Item Specifications page 22. Additional resources may be found on the FLDOE End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments webpage and the FLDOE Social Studies webpage.
SS.912.A.7.12: Analyze political, economic, and social concerns that emerged at the end of the 20th century and into the 21st century.
Examples may include, but are not limited to, AIDS, Green Revolution, outsourcing of jobs, global warming, human rights violations.

This benchmark is annually evaluated on the United States History End-of-Course Assessment. For more information on how this benchmark is evaluated view the United States History End-of-Course Assessment Test Item Specifications pages 57-59. Additional resources may be found on the FLDOE End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments webpage and the FLDOE Social Studies webpage.
SS.912.C.1.3: Evaluate the ideals and principles of the founding documents (Declaration of Independence, Articles of Confederation, Federalist Papers) that shaped American Democracy.
SS.912.C.1.5: Evaluate how the Constitution and its amendments reflect the political principles of rule of law, checks and balances, separation of powers, republicanism, democracy, and federalism.
SS.912.C.2.4: Evaluate, take, and defend positions on issues that cause the government to balance the interests of individuals with the public good.
SS.912.C.2.6: Evaluate, take, and defend positions about rights protected by the Constitution and Bill of Rights.
SS.912.C.2.7: Explain why rights have limits and are not absolute.
Examples are speech, search and seizure, religion, gun possession.
SS.912.C.2.8: Analyze the impact of citizen participation as a means of achieving political and social change.
Examples are e-mail campaigns, boycotts, blogs, podcasts, protests, demonstrations, letters to editors.
SS.912.C.3.1: Examine the constitutional principles of representative government, limited government, consent of the governed, rule of law, and individual rights.
SS.912.C.4.1: Explain how the world's nations are governed differently.
SS.912.C.4.2: Evaluate the influence of American foreign policy on other nations and the influences of other nations on American policies and society.
SS.912.C.4.3: Assess human rights policies of the United States and other countries.
SS.912.E.1.1: Identify the factors of production and why they are necessary for the production of goods and services.
Examples are land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship.
SS.912.E.1.3: Compare how the various economic systems (traditional, market, command, mixed) answer the questions: (1) What to produce?; (2) How to produce?; and (3) For whom to produce?
SS.912.E.1.4: Define supply, demand, quantity supplied,and quantity demanded; graphically illustrate situations that would cause changes in each, and demonstrate how the equilibrium price of a product is determined by the interaction of supply and demand in the market place.
SS.912.E.1.6: Compare the basic characteristics of the four market structures (monopoly, oligopoly, monopolistic competition, pure competition).
SS.912.E.1.10: Explain the use of fiscal policy (taxation, spending) to promote price stability, full employment, and economic growth.
SS.912.E.3.5: Compare the current United States economy with other developed and developing nations.
Examples are standard of living, exchange rates, productivity, gross domestic product.
SS.912.E.3.6: Differentiate and draw conclusions about historical economic thought theorized by economists.
Examples are Adam Smith, Malthus, Ricardo, Keynes, Friedman, Say, Gilder.
SS.912.G.1.1: Design maps using a variety of technologies based on descriptive data to explain physical and cultural attributes of major world regions.
SS.912.G.1.2: Use spatial perspective and appropriate geographic terms and tools, including the Six Essential Elements, as organizational schema to describe any given place.
SS.912.G.1.3: Employ applicable units of measurement and scale to solve simple locational problems using maps and globes.
SS.912.G.1.4: Analyze geographic information from a variety of sources including primary sources, atlases, computer, and digital sources, Geographic Information Systems (GIS), and a broad variety of maps.
Examples are thematic, contour, and dot-density.
SS.912.G.2.1: Identify the physical characteristics and the human characteristics that define and differentiate regions.

Examples of physical characteristics are climate, terrain, resources. 

Examples of human characteristics are religion, government, economy, demography.

SS.912.G.2.2: Describe the factors and processes that contribute to the differences between developing and developed regions of the world.
SS.912.G.2.3: Use geographic terms and tools to analyze case studies of regional issues in different parts of the world that have critical economic, physical, or political ramifications.
Examples are desertification, global warming, cataclysmic natural disasters.
SS.912.G.4.1: Interpret population growth and other demographic data for any given place.
SS.912.G.4.2: Use geographic terms and tools to analyze the push/pull factors contributing to human migration within and among places.
SS.912.G.4.3: Use geographic terms and tools to analyze the effects of migration both on the place of origin and destination, including border areas.
SS.912.G.4.7: Use geographic terms and tools to explain cultural diffusion throughout places, regions, and the world.
SS.912.G.4.9: Use political maps to describe the change in boundaries and governments within continents over time.
SS.912.H.1.1: Relate works in the arts (architecture, dance, music, theatre, and visual arts) of varying styles and genre according to the periods in which they were created.
Examples are Bronze Age, Ming Dynasty, Classical, Renaissance, Modern, and Contemporary.
SS.912.H.1.2: Describe how historical events, social context, and culture impact forms, techniques, and purposes of works in the arts, including the relationship between a government and its citizens.
Examples are imperial Roman sculpture; Palace of Versailles; Picasso's Guernica; layout of Washington, DC.
SS.912.H.1.3: Relate works in the arts to various cultures.
Examples are African, Asian, Oceanic, European, the Americas, Middle Eastern, Egyptian, Greek, Roman.
SS.912.H.1.4: Explain philosophical beliefs as they relate to works in the arts.
Examples are classical architecture, protest music, Native American dance, Japanese Noh.
SS.912.H.1.6: Analyze how current events are explained by artistic and cultural trends of the past.
SS.912.H.2.4: Examine the effects that works in the arts have on groups, individuals, and cultures.
SS.912.H.3.1: Analyze the effects of transportation, trade, communication, science, and technology on the preservation and diffusion of culture.
SS.912.W.1.1: Use timelines to establish cause and effect relationships of historical events.
SS.912.W.1.2: Compare time measurement systems used by different cultures.
Examples are Chinese, Gregorian, and Islamic calendars, dynastic periods, decade, century, era.
SS.912.W.1.3: Interpret and evaluate primary and secondary sources.
Examples are artifacts, images, auditory and written sources.
SS.912.W.1.4: Explain how historians use historical inquiry and other sciences to understand the past.
Examples are archaeology, economics, geography, forensic chemistry, political science, physics.
SS.912.W.1.5: Compare conflicting interpretations or schools of thought about world events and individual contributions to history (historiography).
SS.912.W.1.6: Evaluate the role of history in shaping identity and character.
Examples are ethnic, cultural, personal, national, religious.
LAFS.910.RH.1.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information.
LAFS.910.RH.1.2: Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text.
LAFS.910.RH.1.3: Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them.
LAFS.910.RH.2.4: Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science.
LAFS.910.RH.2.5: Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis.
LAFS.910.RH.2.6: Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts.
LAFS.910.RH.3.7: Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text.
LAFS.910.RH.3.8: Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims.
LAFS.910.RH.3.9: Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources.
LAFS.910.RH.4.10: By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently.
LAFS.910.SL.1.1: Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
  1. Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
  2. Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
  3. Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
  4. Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
LAFS.910.SL.1.2: Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source.
LAFS.910.SL.1.3: Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence.
LAFS.910.SL.2.4: Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task.
LAFS.910.WHST.1.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.
  1. Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
  2. Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
  3. Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
  4. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  5. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
LAFS.910.WHST.1.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes.
  1. Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
  2. Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
  3. Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
  4. Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
  5. Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
  6. Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
LAFS.910.WHST.2.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience.
LAFS.910.WHST.2.5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience.
LAFS.910.WHST.2.6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.
LAFS.910.WHST.3.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation.
LAFS.910.WHST.3.8: Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation.
LAFS.910.WHST.3.9: Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research.
LAFS.910.WHST.4.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences.
MAFS.912.S-IC.2.3: Recognize the purposes of and differences among sample surveys, experiments, and observational studies; explain how randomization relates to each.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-IC.2.4: Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-IC.2.5: Use data from a randomized experiment to compare two treatments; use simulations to decide if differences between parameters are significant.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-IC.2.6: Evaluate reports based on data.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-ID.1.1: Represent data with plots on the real number line (dot plots, histograms, and box plots).
In grades 6 – 8, students describe center and spread in a data distribution. Here they choose a summary statistic appropriate to the characteristics of the data distribution, such as the shape of the distribution or the existence of extreme data points.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-ID.1.2: Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center (median, mean) and spread (interquartile range, standard deviation) of two or more different data sets.
In grades 6 – 8, students describe center and spread in a data distribution. Here they choose a summary statistic appropriate to the characteristics of the data distribution, such as the shape of the distribution or the existence of extreme data points.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-ID.1.3: Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data sets, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).
In grades 6 – 8, students describe center and spread in a data distribution. Here they choose a summary statistic appropriate to the characteristics of the data distribution, such as the shape of the distribution or the existence of extreme data points.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

MAFS.912.S-ID.1.4: Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.

Standard Relation to Course: Supporting

ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1: English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting.
ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1: English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies.
HE.912.C.2.4: Evaluate how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention.
Seat-belt enforcement, underage alcohol sales, reporting communicable diseases, child care, and AED availability.

General Course Information and Notes


Introduction to the Social Sciences - The grade 9-12 Introduction to the Social Sciences course consists of the following content area strands: American History, World History, Geography, Humanities, Economics, and Civics and Government. The primary content emphasis for this course pertains to the study of the scope, focus and methodology of the social sciences through an overview of its various disciplines. Content should include, but is not limited to essential concepts in the fields of anthropology, economics, geography, history, political science, psychology and sociology, inquiry methodologies, measurement techniques, interdisciplinary strategies, leading contributors in the major fields of social science, and development of effective logic and reasoning skills.

Mathematics Benchmark Guidance - Social Studies instruction should include opportunities for students to interpret and create representations of historical events and concepts using mathematical tables, charts, and graphs.

Instructional Practices

Teaching from well-written, grade-level instructional materials enhances students' content area knowledge and also strengthens their ability to comprehend longer, complex reading passages on any topic for any reason. Using the following instructional practices also helps student learning:

  1. Reading assignments from longer text passages as well as shorter ones when text is extremely complex.
  2. Making close reading and rereading of texts central to lessons.
  3. Asking high-level, text-specific questions and requiring high-level, complex tasks and assignments.
  4. Requiring students to support answers with evidence from the text.
  5. Providing extensive text-based research and writing opportunities (claims and evidence).

Literacy Standards in Social Studies
Secondary social studies courses include reading standards for literacy in history/social studies 6-12, and writing standards for literacy in history/social studies, science, and technical subjects 6-12. This course also includes speaking and listening standards. For a complete list of standards required for this course click on the blue tile labeled course standards. You may also download the complete course including all required standards and notes sections using the export function located at the top of this page.

English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standard should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL’s need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link:

General Information

Course Number: 2104300 Course Path: Section: Grades PreK to 12 Education Courses > Grade Group: Grades 9 to 12 and Adult Education Courses > Subject: Social Studies > SubSubject: Interdisciplinary and Applied Social Studies >
Abbreviated Title: INTROD SOCIAL SCI
Number of Credits: One (1) credit
Course Attributes:
  • Florida Standards Course
Course Type: Elective Course Course Level: 2
Course Status: Course Approved
Grade Level(s): 9,10,11,12

Educator Certifications

Political Science (Grades 6-12)
Sociology (Grades 6-12)
Psychology (Grades 6-12)
Social Science (Grades 5-9)
Social Science (Grades 6-12)

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