|ELA.8.C.1.2:|| Write personal or fictional narratives using narrative techniques, varied transitions, and a clearly established point of view. |
|ELA.8.C.1.3:|| Write to argue a position, supporting at least one claim and rebutting at least one counterclaim with logical reasoning, credible evidence from sources, elaboration, and using a logical organizational structure. |
|ELA.8.C.1.4:|| Write expository texts to explain and analyze information from multiple sources, using relevant supporting details, logical organization, and varied purposeful transitions. |
|ELA.8.C.1.5:|| Improve writing by planning, editing, considering feedback from adults and peers, and revising for clarity and cohesiveness. |
|ELA.8.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, in a logical sequence, supporting the central idea with credible evidence.|
Clarification 1: At this grade level, the emphasis is on the content, but students are still expected to follow earlier expectations: volume, pronunciation, and pacing.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Secondary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.8.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
- Appropriately use passive and active voice.
- Use semicolons to form sentences.
- Use verbs with attention to voice and mood.
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
- Add variety to writing or presentations by using parallel structure and various types of phrases and clauses.
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.
|ELA.8.C.4.1:|| Conduct research to answer a question, drawing on multiple reliable and valid sources, and generating additional questions for further research.|
Clarification 1: There is no requirement that students research the additional questions generated.
Clarification 2: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.8.C.5.1:|| Integrate diverse digital media to emphasize the relevance of a topic or idea in oral or written tasks. |
|ELA.8.C.5.2:|| Use a variety of digital tools to collaborate with others to produce writing. |
|ELA.8.R.1.1:|| Analyze the interaction between character development, setting, and plot in a literary text. |
|ELA.8.R.1.2:|| Analyze two or more themes and their development throughout a literary text.|
Clarification 1: For the purposes of this benchmark, theme is not a one- or two-word topic, but a complete thought that communicates the author’s message.
Clarification 2: Students should continue to work with the concept of universal themes, although mastery isn’t expected until 9th grade. A universal theme is an idea that applies to anyone, anywhere, regardless of cultural differences. Examples include but are not limited to an individual’s or a community’s confrontation with nature; an individual’s struggle toward understanding, awareness, and/or spiritual enlightenment; the tension between the ideal and the real; the conflict between human beings and advancements in technology/science; the impact of the past on the present; the inevitability of fate; the struggle for equality; and the loss of innocence.
|ELA.8.R.1.3:|| Analyze how an author develops and individualizes the perspectives of different characters.|
Clarification 1: The term perspective means “a particular attitude toward or way of regarding something.” The term point of view is used when referring to the person of the narrator. This is to prevent confusion and conflation.
|ELA.8.R.1.4:|| Analyze structure, sound, imagery, and figurative language in poetry.|
Clarification 1: Structural elements for this benchmark are form, line length, white space, indention, line breaks, and stanza breaks.
Clarification 2: Sound can be created through the use of end rhyme, internal rhyme, slant rhyme, alliteration, assonance, consonance, onomatopoeia, repetition, and meter.
Clarification 3: Imagery, as used here, refers to language and description that appeals to the five senses.
Clarification 4: Figurative language types for this benchmark are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
|ELA.8.R.2.1:|| Analyze how individual text sections and/or features convey a purpose and/or meaning in texts. |
|ELA.8.R.2.2:|| Analyze two or more central ideas and their development throughout a text. |
|ELA.8.R.2.3:|| Explain how an author establishes and achieves purpose(s) through rhetorical appeals and/or figurative language.|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will analyze are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, meiosis (understatement), allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: Students will explain the appropriateness of appeals in achieving a purpose. In this grade level, students are using and responsible for the appeals of logos, ethos, and pathos.
|ELA.8.R.2.4:|| Track the development of an argument, analyzing the types of reasoning used and their effectiveness, identifying ways in which the argument could be improved.|
Clarification 1: For more information on types of reasoning, see Types of Logical Reasoning.
Clarification 2: Instruction in types of reasoning will include an introduction to fallacies in reasoning. Fallacies that are related to content, informal fallacies, will be the focus. See Fallacies in Reasoning (Informal).
|ELA.8.R.3.1:|| Analyze how figurative language contributes to meaning and explain examples of symbolism in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will analyze are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, allusion, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
|ELA.8.R.3.2:|| Paraphrase content from grade-level texts.|
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.8.R.3.3:|| Compare and contrast the use or discussion of archetypes in texts. |
|ELA.8.R.3.4:|| Explain how an author uses rhetorical devices to support or advance an appeal.|
Clarification 1: Rhetorical devices for the purposes of this benchmark are the figurative language devices from 8.R.3.1 with the addition of irony, rhetorical question, antithesis, and zeugma.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
Clarification 3: See Rhetorical Appeals and Rhetorical Devices.
Clarification 4: Students will explain the connection between an author’s use of rhetorical devices and the appeal—logos, ethos, or pathos—that is being made. Instruction should focus on ensuring students can explain how specific rhetorical devices contribute to the development of the rhetorical appeal(s) the author uses.
|ELA.8.V.1.1:|| Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: To integrate vocabulary, students will apply the vocabulary they have learned to authentic speaking and writing tasks independently. This use should be intentional, beyond responding to a prompt to use a word in a sentence.
Clarification 2: Academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level refers to words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.8.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of Greek and Latin roots and affixes to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content. |
|ELA.8.V.1.3:|| Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
The purpose of this course is to enable students who are native speakers of languages other than English to develop proficient listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in the English language. Emphasis will be on acquisition of integrated English communication skills in a wide range of content and activities using texts of high complexity to ensure college and career preparation and readiness.
This course defines what students should understand and be able to do by the end of 8th grade. Knowledge acquisition should be the primary purpose of any reading approach as the systematic building of a wide range of knowledge across domains is a prerequisite to higher literacy. At this grade level, students are building their facility with rhetoric, the craft of using language in writing and speaking, using classic literature, essays, and speeches as mentor texts.
The benchmarks in this course are mastery goals that students are expected to attain by the end of the year. To build mastery, students will continue to review and apply earlier grade-level benchmarks and expectations.
English Language Arts is not a discrete set of skills, but a rich discipline with meaningful, significant content, the knowledge of which helps all students actively and fully participate in our society.
Standards should not stand alone as a separate focus for instruction, but should be combined purposefully.
The texts students read should be meaningful and thought-provoking, preparing them to be informed, civic-minded members of their community.
Curricular content for all subjects must integrate critical-thinking, problem-solving, and workforce-literacy skills; communication, reading, and writing skills; mathematics skills; collaboration skills; contextual and applied-learning skills; technology-literacy skills; information and media-literacy skills; and civic-engagement skills.
English Language Development ELD Standards Special Notes Section:
Teachers are required to provide listening, speaking, reading and writing instruction that allows English language learners (ELL) to communicate information, ideas and concepts for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. For the given level of English language proficiency and with visual, graphic, or interactive support, students will interact with grade level words, expressions, sentences and discourse to process or produce language necessary for academic success. The ELD standards should specify a relevant content area concept or topic of study chosen by curriculum developers and teachers which maximizes an ELL's need for communication and social skills. To access an ELL supporting document which delineates performance definitions and descriptors, please click on the following link: https://cpalmsmediaprod.blob.core.windows.net/uploads/docs/standards/eld/la.pdf