|SS.912.A.1.1:|| Describe the importance of historiography, which includes how historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted, when interpreting events in history. |
|SS.912.A.1.2:|| Utilize a variety of primary and secondary sources to identify author, historical significance, audience, and authenticity to understand a historical period.|
Examples of primary and secondary sources may be found on various websites such as the site for The Kinsey Collection.
|SS.912.A.1.3:|| Utilize timelines to identify the time sequence of historical data. |
|SS.912.A.1.4:|| Analyze how images, symbols, objects, cartoons, graphs, charts, maps, and artwork may be used to interpret the significance of time periods and events from the past. |
|SS.912.A.1.6:|| Use case studies to explore social, political, legal, and economic relationships in history. |
|SS.912.A.3.2:|| Examine the social, political, and economic causes, course, and consequences of the second Industrial Revolution that began in the late 19th century.|
This benchmark is annually evaluated on the United States History End-of-Course Assessment. For more information on how this benchmark is evaluated view the United States History End-of-Course Assessment Test Item Specifications pages 23-26. Additional resources may be found on the FLDOE End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments webpage and the FLDOE Social Studies webpage.
|SS.912.A.3.10:|| Review different economic and philosophic ideologies.|
Economic examples may include, but are not limited to, market economy, mixed economy, planned economy and philosophic examples are capitalism, socialism, communism, anarchy.
This benchmark is annually evaluated on the United States History End-of-Course Assessment. For more information on how this benchmark is evaluated view the United States History End-of-Course Assessment Test Item Specifications page 22. Additional resources may be found on the FLDOE End-of-Course (EOC) Assessments webpage and the FLDOE Social Studies webpage.
|SS.912.H.1.2:|| Describe how historical events, social context, and culture impact forms, techniques, and purposes of works in the arts, including the relationship between a government and its citizens.|
Examples are imperial Roman sculpture; Palace of Versailles; Picasso's Guernica; layout of Washington, DC.
|SS.912.H.1.4:|| Explain philosophical beliefs as they relate to works in the arts.|
Examples are classical architecture, protest music, Native American dance, Japanese Noh.
|SS.912.H.1.7:|| Know terminology of art forms (narthex, apse, triforium of Gothic cathedral) within cultures and use appropriately in oral and written references.
|SS.912.H.2.1:|| Identify specific characteristics of works within various art forms (architecture, dance, film, literature, music, theatre, and visual arts).
|SS.912.H.2.3:|| Apply various types of critical analysis (contextual, formal, and intuitive criticism) to works in the arts, including the types and use of symbolism within art forms and their philosophical implications.
|SS.912.H.2.4:|| Examine the effects that works in the arts have on groups, individuals, and cultures. |
|SS.912.H.3.1:|| Analyze the effects of transportation, trade, communication, science, and technology on the preservation and diffusion of culture. |
|SS.912.P.8.2:|| Discuss the relationship between language and thought. |
|SS.912.P.10.2:|| Identify how cultures change over time and vary within nations and internationally. |
|SS.912.P.10.3:|| Discuss the relationship between culture and conceptions of self and identity. |
|SS.912.S.2.1:|| Define the key components of a culture, such as knowledge, language and communication, customs, values, norms, and physical objects. |
|SS.912.S.2.9:|| Prepare original written and oral reports and presentations on specific events, people or historical eras. |
|SS.912.S.3.3:|| Examine and analyze various points of view relating to historical and current events. |
|SS.912.S.5.1:|| Identify basic social institutions and explain their impact on individuals, groups and organizations within society and how they transmit the values of society.|
Examples may include, but are not limited to, familial, religious, educational, economic, and political institutions.
|SS.912.S.5.6:|| Identify the factors that influence change in social norms over time. |
|SS.912.S.6.1:|| Describe how and why societies change over time. |
|SS.912.S.6.8:|| Investigate the consequences in society as result of changes. |
|SS.912.W.1.1:|| Use timelines to establish cause and effect relationships of historical events. |
|SS.912.W.1.2:|| Compare time measurement systems used by different cultures.
Examples are Chinese, Gregorian, and Islamic calendars, dynastic periods, decade, century, era.
|SS.912.W.1.3:|| Interpret and evaluate primary and secondary sources.|
Examples are artifacts, images, auditory and written sources.
|SS.912.W.1.4:|| Explain how historians use historical inquiry and other sciences to understand the past.|
Examples are archaeology, economics, geography, forensic chemistry, political science, physics.
|SS.912.W.1.5:|| Compare conflicting interpretations or schools of thought about world events and individual contributions to history (historiography).
|SS.912.W.1.6:|| Evaluate the role of history in shaping identity and character.|
Examples are ethnic, cultural, personal, national, religious.
|SS.912.W.2.3:|| Analyze the extent to which the Byzantine Empire was a continuation of the old Roman Empire and in what ways it was a departure. |
|SS.912.W.2.5:|| Explain the contributions of the Byzantine Empire.
Examples are Justinian's Code, the preservation of ancient Greek and Roman learning and culture, artistic and architectural achievements, the empire's impact on the development of Western Europe, Islamic civilization, and Slavic peoples.
|SS.912.W.2.6:|| Describe the causes and effects of the Iconoclast controversy of the 8th and 9th centuries and the 11th century Christian schism between the churches of Constantinople and Rome.
|SS.912.W.2.7:|| Analyze causes (Justinian's Plague, ongoing attacks from the "barbarians," the Crusades, and internal political turmoil) of the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
|SS.912.W.2.10:|| Describe the orders of medieval social hierarchy, the changing role of the Church, the emergence of feudalism, and the development of private property as a distinguishing feature of Western Civilization. |
|SS.912.W.2.11:|| Describe the rise and achievements of significant rulers in medieval Europe.|
Examples are Charles Martel, Charlemagne, Otto the Great, William the Conqueror.
|SS.912.W.2.12:|| Recognize the importance of Christian monasteries and convents as centers of education, charitable and missionary activity, economic productivity, and political power. |
|SS.912.W.2.13:|| Explain how Western civilization arose from a synthesis of classical Greco-Roman civilization, Judeo-Christian influence, and the cultures of northern European peoples promoting a cultural unity in Europe. |
|SS.912.W.2.14:|| Describe the causes and effects of the Great Famine of 1315-1316, The Black Death, The Great Schism of 1378, and the Hundred Years War on Western Europe. |
|SS.912.W.2.15:|| Determine the factors that contributed to the growth of a modern economy.|
Examples are growth of banking, technological and agricultural improvements, commerce, towns, guilds, rise of a merchant class.
|SS.912.W.2.16:|| Trace the growth and development of a national identity in the countries of England, France, and Spain. |
|SS.912.W.2.17:|| Identify key figures, artistic, and intellectual achievements of the medieval period in Western Europe.|
Examples are Anselm of Canterbury, Chaucer, Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon, Hildegard of Bingen, Dante, Code of Chivalry, Gothic architecture, illumination, universities, Natural Law Philosophy, Scholasticism.
|SS.912.W.2.18:|| Describe developments in medieval English legal and constitutional history and their importance to the rise of modern democratic institutions and procedures.|
Examples are Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus.
|SS.912.W.3.2:|| Compare the major beliefs and principles of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
|SS.912.W.3.7:|| Analyze the causes, key events, and effects of the European response to Islamic expansion beginning in the 7th century.|
Examples are Crusades, Reconquista.
|SS.912.W.3.8:|| Identify important figures associated with the Crusades.|
Examples are Alexius Comnenus, Pope Urban, Bernard of Clairvaux, Godfrey of Bouillon, Saladin, Richard the Lionheart, Baybars, Louis IX.
|SS.912.W.4.1:|| Identify the economic and political causes for the rise of the Italian city-states (Florence, Milan, Naples, Rome, Venice).
|SS.912.W.4.2:|| Recognize major influences on the architectural, artistic, and literary developments of Renaissance Italy (Classical, Byzantine, Islamic, Western European).
|SS.912.W.4.3:|| Identify the major artistic, literary, and technological contributions of individuals during the Renaissance.|
Examples are Petrarch, Brunelleschi, Giotto, the Medici Family, Michelangelo, Leonardo da Vinci, Erasmus, Thomas More, Machiavelli, Shakespeare, Gutenberg, El Greco, Artemisia Gentileschi, Van Eyck.
|SS.912.W.4.4:|| Identify characteristics of Renaissance humanism in works of art.|
Examples are influence of classics, School of Athens.
|SS.912.W.4.5:|| Describe how ideas from the Middle Ages and Renaissance led to the Scientific Revolution. |
|SS.912.W.4.6:|| Describe how scientific theories and methods of the Scientific Revolution challenged those of the early classical and medieval periods. |
|SS.912.W.4.7:|| Identify criticisms of the Roman Catholic Church by individuals such as Wycliffe, Hus and Erasmus and their impact on later reformers. |
|SS.912.W.4.8:|| Summarize religious reforms associated with Luther, Calvin, Zwingli, Henry VIII, and John of Leyden and the effects of the Reformation on Europe.|
Examples are Catholic and Counter Reformation, political and religious fragmentation, military conflict, expansion of capitalism.
|SS.912.W.4.9:|| Analyze the Roman Catholic Church's response to the Protestant Reformation in the forms of the Counter and Catholic Reformation.|
Examples are Council of Trent, Thomas More, Ignatius of Loyola and the Jesuits, Teresa of Avila, Charles V.
|SS.912.W.4.10:|| Identify the major contributions of individuals associated with the Scientific Revolution.|
Examples are Francis Bacon, Nicholas Copernicus, Rene Descartes, Galileo Galilei, Johannes Kepler, Isaac Newton, Blaise Pascal, Vesalius.
|SS.912.W.4.11:|| Summarize the causes that led to the Age of Exploration, and identify major voyages and sponsors. |
|SS.912.W.4.12:|| Evaluate the scope and impact of the Columbian Exchange on Europe, Africa, Asia, and the Americas.
|SS.912.W.4.13:|| Examine the various economic and political systems of Portugal, Spain, the Netherlands, France, and England in the Americas. |
|SS.912.W.4.14:|| Recognize the practice of slavery and other forms of forced labor experienced during the 13th through 17th centuries in East Africa, West Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, and the Americas. |
|SS.912.W.5.1:|| Compare the causes and effects of the development of constitutional monarchy in England with those of the development of absolute monarchy in France, Spain, and Russia. |
|SS.912.W.5.2:|| Identify major causes of the Enlightenment.|
Examples are ideas from the Renaissance, Scientific Revolution, Reformation, and resistance to absolutism.
|SS.912.W.5.3:|| Summarize the major ideas of Enlightenment philosophers.
|SS.912.W.5.4:|| Evaluate the impact of Enlightenment ideals on the development of economic, political, and religious structures in the Western world. |
|SS.912.W.5.5:|| Analyze the extent to which the Enlightenment impacted the American and French Revolutions. |
|SS.912.W.5.6:|| Summarize the important causes, events, and effects of the French Revolution including the rise and rule of Napoleon. |
|SS.912.W.6.1:|| Describe the agricultural and technological innovations that led to industrialization in Great Britain and its subsequent spread to continental Europe, the United States, and Japan. |
|SS.912.W.6.2:|| Summarize the social and economic effects of the Industrial Revolution.|
Examples are urbanization, increased productivity and wealth, rise of the middle class, conditions faced by workers, rise of labor unions, expansion of colonialism.
|SS.912.W.6.3:|| Compare the philosophies of capitalism, socialism, and communism as described by Adam Smith, Robert Owen, and Karl Marx. |
|SS.912.W.6.4:|| Describe the 19th and early 20th century social and political reforms and reform movements and their effects in Africa, Asia, Europe, the United States, the Caribbean, and Latin America.|
Examples are Meiji Reforms, abolition of slavery in the British Empire, expansion of women's rights, labor laws.
|SS.912.W.6.5:|| Summarize the causes, key events, and effects of the unification of Italy and Germany. |
|SS.912.W.6.6:|| Analyze the causes and effects of imperialism.|
Examples are social impact on indigenous peoples, the Crimean War, development of the Suez Canal, Spheres of Influence)
|SS.912.W.7.1:|| Analyze the causes of World War I including the formation of European alliances and the roles of imperialism, nationalism, and militarism. |
|SS.912.W.7.4:|| Describe the causes and effects of the German economic crisis of the 1920s and the global depression of the 1930s, and analyze how governments responded to the Great Depression. |
|SS.912.W.7.5:|| Describe the rise of authoritarian governments in the Soviet Union, Italy, Germany, and Spain, and analyze the policies and main ideas of Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Benito Mussolini, Adolf Hitler, and Francisco Franco.
|SS.912.W.7.6:|| Analyze the restriction of individual rights and the use of mass terror against populations in the Soviet Union, Nazi Germany, and occupied territories. |
|SS.912.W.7.7:|| Trace the causes and key events related to World War II. |
|SS.912.W.8.1:|| Identify the United States and Soviet aligned states of Europe, and contrast their political and economic characteristics.
|SS.912.W.8.2:|| Describe characteristics of the early Cold War.|
Examples are containment policy, Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan, NATO, Iron Curtain, Berlin Airlift, Warsaw Pact.
|SS.912.W.8.5:|| Identify the factors that led to the decline and fall of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe.|
Examples are the arms race, Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, growing internal resistance to communism, perestroika and glasnost, United States influence.
|SS.912.W.9.1:|| Identify major scientific figures and breakthroughs of the 20th century, and assess their impact on contemporary life.|
Examples are Marie Curie, Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, Sigmund Freud, Wright Brothers, Charles R. Drew, mass vaccination, atomic energy, transistor, microchip, space exploration, Internet, discovery of DNA, Human Genome Project.
|SS.912.W.9.2:|| Describe the causes and effects of post-World War II economic and demographic changes.|
Examples are medical and technological advances, free market economics, increased consumption of natural resources and goods, rise in expectations for standards of living.
|SS.912.W.9.4:|| Describe the causes and effects of twentieth century nationalist conflicts.|
Examples are Cyprus, Kashmir, Tibet, Northern Ireland.
|LAFS.910.RH.1.1:|| Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources, attending to such features as the date and origin of the information. |
|LAFS.910.RH.1.2:|| Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source; provide an accurate summary of how key events or ideas develop over the course of the text. |
|LAFS.910.RH.1.3:|| Analyze in detail a series of events described in a text; determine whether earlier events caused later ones or simply preceded them. |
|LAFS.910.RH.2.4:|| Determine the meaning of words and phrases as they are used in a text, including vocabulary describing political, social, or economic aspects of history/social science. |
|LAFS.910.RH.2.5:|| Analyze how a text uses structure to emphasize key points or advance an explanation or analysis. |
|LAFS.910.RH.2.6:|| Compare the point of view of two or more authors for how they treat the same or similar topics, including which details they include and emphasize in their respective accounts. |
|LAFS.910.RH.3.7:|| Integrate quantitative or technical analysis (e.g., charts, research data) with qualitative analysis in print or digital text. |
|LAFS.910.RH.3.8:|| Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text support the author’s claims. |
|LAFS.910.RH.3.9:|| Compare and contrast treatments of the same topic in several primary and secondary sources. |
|LAFS.910.RH.4.10:|| By the end of grade 10, read and comprehend history/social studies texts in the grades 9–10 text complexity band independently and proficiently. |
|LAFS.910.SL.1.1:|| Initiate and participate effectively in a range of collaborative discussions (one-on-one, in groups, and teacher-led) with diverse partners on grades 9–10 topics, texts, and issues, building on others’ ideas and expressing their own clearly and persuasively.
- Come to discussions prepared, having read and researched material under study; explicitly draw on that preparation by referring to evidence from texts and other research on the topic or issue to stimulate a thoughtful, well-reasoned exchange of ideas.
- Work with peers to set rules for collegial discussions and decision-making (e.g., informal consensus, taking votes on key issues, presentation of alternate views), clear goals and deadlines, and individual roles as needed.
- Propel conversations by posing and responding to questions that relate the current discussion to broader themes or larger ideas; actively incorporate others into the discussion; and clarify, verify, or challenge ideas and conclusions.
- Respond thoughtfully to diverse perspectives, summarize points of agreement and disagreement, and, when warranted, qualify or justify their own views and understanding and make new connections in light of the evidence and reasoning presented.
|LAFS.910.SL.1.2:|| Integrate multiple sources of information presented in diverse media or formats (e.g., visually, quantitatively, orally) evaluating the credibility and accuracy of each source. |
|LAFS.910.SL.1.3:|| Evaluate a speaker’s point of view, reasoning, and use of evidence and rhetoric, identifying any fallacious reasoning or exaggerated or distorted evidence. |
|LAFS.910.SL.2.4:|| Present information, findings, and supporting evidence clearly, concisely, and logically such that listeners can follow the line of reasoning and the organization, development, substance, and style are appropriate to purpose, audience, and task. |
|LAFS.910.SL.2.5:|| Make strategic use of digital media (e.g., textual, graphical, audio, visual, and interactive elements) in presentations to enhance understanding of findings, reasoning, and evidence and to add interest. |
|LAFS.910.SL.2.6:|| Adapt speech to a variety of contexts and tasks, demonstrating command of formal English when indicated or appropriate. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.1.1:|| Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content. |
- Introduce precise claim(s), distinguish the claim(s) from alternate or opposing claims, and create an organization that establishes clear relationships among the claim(s), counterclaims, reasons, and evidence.
- Develop claim(s) and counterclaims fairly, supplying data and evidence for each while pointing out the strengths and limitations of both claim(s) and counterclaims in a discipline-appropriate form and in a manner that anticipates the audience’s knowledge level and concerns.
- Use words, phrases, and clauses to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships between claim(s) and reasons, between reasons and evidence, and between claim(s) and counterclaims.
- Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
- Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from or supports the argument presented.
|LAFS.910.WHST.1.2:|| Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historical events, scientific procedures/ experiments, or technical processes. |
- Introduce a topic and organize ideas, concepts, and information to make important connections and distinctions; include formatting (e.g., headings), graphics (e.g., figures, tables), and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension.
- Develop the topic with well-chosen, relevant, and sufficient facts, extended definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples appropriate to the audience’s knowledge of the topic.
- Use varied transitions and sentence structures to link the major sections of the text, create cohesion, and clarify the relationships among ideas and concepts.
- Use precise language and domain-specific vocabulary to manage the complexity of the topic and convey a style appropriate to the discipline and context as well as to the expertise of likely readers.
- Establish and maintain a formal style and objective tone while attending to the norms and conventions of the discipline in which they are writing.
- Provide a concluding statement or section that follows from and supports the information or explanation presented (e.g., articulating implications or the significance of the topic).
|LAFS.910.WHST.2.4:|| Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development, organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.2.5:|| Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing, rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for a specific purpose and audience. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.2.6:|| Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and update individual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link to other information and to display information flexibly and dynamically. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.3.7:|| Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answer a question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broaden the inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.3.8:|| Gather relevant information from multiple authoritative print and digital sources, using advanced searches effectively; assess the usefulness of each source in answering the research question; integrate information into the text selectively to maintain the flow of ideas, avoiding plagiarism and following a standard format for citation. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.3.9:|| Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection, and research. |
|LAFS.910.WHST.4.10:|| Write routinely over extended time frames (time for reflection and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of discipline-specific tasks, purposes, and audiences. |
Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them.
Mathematically proficient students start by explaining to themselves the meaning of a problem and looking for entry points to its solution. They analyze givens, constraints, relationships, and goals. They make conjectures about the form and meaning of the solution and plan a solution pathway rather than simply jumping into a solution attempt. They consider analogous problems, and try special cases and simpler forms of the original problem in order to gain insight into its solution. They monitor and evaluate their progress and change course if necessary. Older students might, depending on the context of the problem, transform algebraic expressions or change the viewing window on their graphing calculator to get the information they need. Mathematically proficient students can explain correspondences between equations, verbal descriptions, tables, and graphs or draw diagrams of important features and relationships, graph data, and search for regularity or trends. Younger students might rely on using concrete objects or pictures to help conceptualize and solve a problem. Mathematically proficient students check their answers to problems using a different method, and they continually ask themselves, “Does this make sense?” They can understand the approaches of others to solving complex problems and identify correspondences between different approaches.
Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others.
Mathematically proficient students understand and use stated assumptions, definitions, and previously established results in constructing arguments. They make conjectures and build a logical progression of statements to explore the truth of their conjectures. They are able to analyze situations by breaking them into cases, and can recognize and use counterexamples. They justify their conclusions, communicate them to others, and respond to the arguments of others. They reason inductively about data, making plausible arguments that take into account the context from which the data arose. Mathematically proficient students are also able to compare the effectiveness of two plausible arguments, distinguish correct logic or reasoning from that which is flawed, and—if there is a flaw in an argument—explain what it is. Elementary students can construct arguments using concrete referents such as objects, drawings, diagrams, and actions. Such arguments can make sense and be correct, even though they are not generalized or made formal until later grades. Later, students learn to determine domains to which an argument applies. Students at all grades can listen or read the arguments of others, decide whether they make sense, and ask useful questions to clarify or improve the arguments.
Attend to precision.
Mathematically proficient students try to communicate precisely to others. They try to use clear definitions in discussion with others and in their own reasoning. They state the meaning of the symbols they choose, including using the equal sign consistently and appropriately. They are careful about specifying units of measure, and labeling axes to clarify the correspondence with quantities in a problem. They calculate accurately and efficiently, express numerical answers with a degree of precision appropriate for the problem context. In the elementary grades, students give carefully formulated explanations to each other. By the time they reach high school they have learned to examine claims and make explicit use of definitions.
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SS.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Social Studies. |
|HE.912.C.2.4:|| Evaluate how public health policies and government regulations can influence health promotion and disease prevention.|
Seat-belt enforcement, underage alcohol sales, reporting communicable diseases, child care, and AED availability.
Humane Letters 2 - History is an integrated blending of History and Literature that includes content standards categorized as American History, World History, and Humanities. Emphasizing the classical approach to teaching and learning, this social studies course fosters reading, discussion, and writing based on ideas contained within the great books of the modern European tradition. This course is designed to be paired with Humane Letters 2 - Literature.
Students study European history from the Late Middle Ages to the end of World War Two, with a special focus placed on political and societal change. Within the scope of this course, these changes are explored through the study of works of history, political philosophy, and imaginative literature. Political and societal changes include, but are not limited to, the historical development and theoretical justification of modern constitutional government. Additionally, students will explore questions concerning the basis of property rights, the birth and growth of modern ideologies in the 19th and 20th centuries, and the causes and effects of revolution. Recommended texts for this course include, but are not limited to: Locke’s Second Treatise of Government and Rousseau’s Discourse on Inequality.
Standards-based course content for each time period should include, but not be limited to:
Late Middle Ages: Understand how the Black Death, the Hundred Years’ War, and tensions within the Medieval Church led to ruptures in medieval society that paved the way for the Renaissance.
The Renaissance: Determine how the Renaissance period opened the door for humanistic thinking, more nationalized monarchies, and open calls for social/political reform. Special emphasis may be placed the writings of Machiavelli, Castiglione and Mirandola.
The Reformation: Recognize the central tenets of the Reformation and the Counter-Reformation, noting especially the diverse beliefs among Protestant groups and the social/political impact of the movement.
The Age of Religious Wars: Examine the violent nature of confessional wars across Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries, noting especially the gradual shift toward considerations of domestic and international society adopted by the politiques.
European State Consolidation (English Constitutionalism and French Absolutism): Analyze the means by which England and France consolidated political power in the hands of the state, noting especially the political theory behind Constitutionalism and Absolutism. Examine the intricacies of the English Civil War, the legacy of Oliver Cromwell, the significance of the Glorious Revolution, and counterexample of Louis XIV’s absolutism.
Scientific Revolution: Discuss the ideas associated with major thinkers of the 16th and 17th centuries who emphasized empiricism and a new philosophy of science. Explain why this new epistemology was “revolutionary” and was poised to supplant more traditional means of knowing.
18th–Century Thought and Life: Recognize the most salient aspects of the Old Regime, noting the social, political, economic, and intellectual tensions that existed therein that paved the way towards the French Revolution. Careful attention is given to the Enlightenment, including its major thinkers and their calls for reform of religion, politics and society.
The French Revolution and the Modern Nation-State: Discuss the political, intellectual, industrial, and societal themes that lead to the French Revolution and its aftermath. Recognize the common themes in the definition and formation of modern European nation-states.
19th-Centuray Thought, Politics, and Culture: Investigate the many new threads which are woven together to create the aspirations, ambitions, and tensions which set the stage for the World Wars.
The World Wars: Recognize historical facts about WWI and WWII. Analyze the origins of these wars. Discuss the relationship between the end of WWI and the beginning of WWII. Examine how WWII created the early conditions of the Cold War and modernity more generally.