|ELA.6.C.1.2:|| Write personal or fictional narratives using narrative techniques, precise words and phrases, and figurative language.|
Clarification 1: See Writing Types and Narrative Techniques.
Clarification 2: Figurative language at this grade level should include any on which students have received instruction in this or previous grades. See Figurative Language Standard.
|ELA.6.C.1.3:|| Write and support a claim using logical reasoning, relevant evidence from sources, elaboration, and a logical organizational structure with varied transitions. |
|ELA.6.C.1.4:|| Write expository texts to explain and/or analyze information from multiple sources, using a logical organizational structure, relevant elaboration, and varied transitions. |
|ELA.6.C.2.1:|| Present information orally, in a logical sequence, using nonverbal cues, appropriate volume, clear pronunciation, and appropriate pacing.|
Clarification 1: Nonverbal cues appropriate to this grade level are posture, tone, expressive delivery, focus on the audience, and facial expression. Clear pronunciation should be interpreted to mean an understanding and application of phonics rules and sight words as well as care taken in delivery. A student’s speech impediment should not be considered as impeding clear pronunciation. Appropriate pacing is adhering to the pauses dictated by punctuation and speaking at a rate that best facilitates comprehension by the audience. Too fast a pace will lose listeners and too slow can become monotonous. The element will also help students address the nervousness that may make them speak too fast during presentations.
Clarification 2: For further guidance, see the Secondary Oral Communication Rubric.
|ELA.6.C.3.1:|| Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.|
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:
Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as follows:
- Use verbals including gerunds, infinitives, and participial phrases.
- Use comparative and superlative forms of adjectives.
- Use pronouns correctly with regard to case, number, and person, correcting for vague pronoun reference.
Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.
- Appropriately use colons.
- Appropriately use dangling modifiers.
- Appropriately use ellipses.
- Appropriately use hyphens.
- Vary sentence structure.
|ELA.6.C.4.1:|| Conduct research to answer a question, drawing on multiple reliable and valid sources, and refocusing the inquiry when appropriate.|
Clarification 1: While the benchmark does require that students consult multiple sources, there is no requirement that they use every source they consult. Part of the skill in researching is discernment—being able to tell which information is relevant and which sources are trustworthy enough to include.
|ELA.6.R.1.1:|| Analyze how the interaction between characters contributes to the development of a plot in a literary text. |
|ELA.6.R.1.2:|| Analyze the development of stated or implied theme(s) throughout a literary text.|
Clarification 1: For the purposes of this benchmark, theme is not a one- or two-word topic, but a complete thought that communicates the author’s message. See Theme in Glossary.
Clarification 2: Students should be introduced to the concept of universal themes, although mastery isn’t expected until 9th grade. A universal theme is an idea that applies to anyone, anywhere, regardless of cultural differences. Examples include but are not limited to an individual’s or a community’s confrontation with nature; an individual’s struggle toward understanding, awareness, and/or spiritual enlightenment; the tension between the ideal and the real; the conflict between human beings and advancements in technology/science; the impact of the past on the present; the inevitability of fate; the struggle for equality; and the loss of innocence.
|ELA.6.R.1.3:|| Explain the influence of multiple narrators and/or shifts in point of view in a literary text.|
Clarification 1: When referring to the person of the narrator, the term “point of view” is used. Students focused on perspective in fifth grade, so they should differentiate between point of view and perspective when working on this benchmark.
|ELA.6.R.1.4:|| Describe the impact of various poetic forms on meaning and style.|
Clarification 1: Poetic forms used for this benchmark are sonnet and villanelle.
|ELA.6.R.2.1:|| Explain how individual text sections and/or features convey meaning in texts. |
|ELA.6.R.2.2:|| Analyze the central idea(s), implied or explicit, and its development throughout a text.|
Clarification 1: Various types of support could include an author’s use of facts, definitions, concrete details, and/or quotations to develop the central idea(s) in a text.
|ELA.6.R.2.3:|| Analyze authors’ purpose(s) in multiple accounts of the same event or topic. |
|ELA.6.R.2.4:|| Track the development of an argument, identifying the types of reasoning used.|
Clarification 1: For more information on types of reasoning, see Types of Logical Reasoning.
Clarification 2: Instruction in types of reasoning will include an introduction to fallacies in reasoning. Fallacies that are related to content, informal fallacies, will be the focus. See Fallacies in Reasoning (Informal).
|ELA.6.R.3.1:|| Explain how figurative language contributes to tone and meaning in text(s).|
Clarification 1: Figurative language use that students will analyze are metaphor, simile, alliteration, onomatopoeia, personification, hyperbole, and idiom. Other examples can be used in instruction.
Clarification 2: See Secondary Figurative Language.
|ELA.6.R.3.2:|| Paraphrase content from grade-level texts.|
Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark.
|ELA.6.V.1.1:|| Integrate academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level in speaking and writing.|
Clarification 1: To integrate vocabulary, students will apply the vocabulary they have learned to authentic speaking and writing tasks independently. This use should be intentional, beyond responding to a prompt to use a word in a sentence.
Clarification 2: Academic vocabulary appropriate to grade level refers to words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.
|ELA.6.V.1.2:|| Apply knowledge of Greek and Latin roots and affixes to determine meanings of words and phrases in grade-level content. |
|ELA.6.V.1.3:|| Apply knowledge of context clues, figurative language, word relationships, reference materials, and/or background knowledge to determine the connotative and denotative meaning of words and phrases, appropriate to grade level. |
|ELA.612.F.2.1:|| Demonstrate an understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds.|
- Orally produce single-syllable and multisyllabic words by accurately blending sounds.
- Accurately segment single-syllable and multisyllabic words.
Clarification 1: Phonological awareness only refers to what can be done orally at both the sound and syllabic level. This includes isolating sounds, blending sounds, and orally segmenting words based on syllables. It does not involve print or letter knowledge.
- Orally combine c-a-t to make cat/ orally combine trou-ser to make trouser.
- Orally break cat into c-a-t/ orally break trouser into trou-ser.
|ELA.612.F.2.2:|| Know and apply phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words.|
- Use an array of strategies to decode single-syllable and multisyllabic words.
- Accurately read multisyllabic words using a combined knowledge of all letter-sound correspondences, and syllabication patterns.
Clarification 1: Phonics refers to the relationship between graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and phonemes (speech sounds). Since morphemes represent the smallest unit of language with meaning, morphology refers to the skill of recognizing morphemes as a unit when decoding and determining meaning.
|ELA.612.F.2.3:|| Know and apply phonics and word analysis skills in encoding words.|
- Use an array of strategies to accurately encode single-syllable and multisyllabic words.
Clarification 1: Encoding refers to using the written word in order to communicate. It combines the skills of phonological awareness, phonics, and morphology to move from the oral to the written word.
- The process of encoding sounds through letters (s, r), consonant blends (sh, sk), digraphs (ay, ew), or trigraphs (sch, thr) using conventional spelling patterns to form words.
- The process of adding single units of sound with meaning to existing word parts to encode a given word.
|ELA.612.F.2.4:|| Read grade-level texts, at the student’s ability level, with accuracy, automaticity, and prosody or expression using the student’s mode of communication.|
Clarification 1: See Fluency Norms for grade-level norms. Norms are expressed as words correct per minute (WCPM), a measure that combines accuracy with rate. The chart stops at 6th grade because it represents sufficient automaticity for proficient reading. For secondary students receiving reading interventions, teachers should use the 6th grade norms as a goal.
Clarification 2: Appropriate prosody refers to pausing patterns during oral reading that reflect the punctuation and meaning of a text. See Sample Oral Reading Fluency Rubrics for prosody.
|ELA.K12.EE.1.1:|| Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.|
K-1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.
2-3 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations.
4-5 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor.
6-8 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation.
9-12 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
|ELA.K12.EE.2.1:|| Read and comprehend grade-level complex texts proficiently.|
See Text Complexity for grade-level complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.
|ELA.K12.EE.3.1:|| Make inferences to support comprehension.|
Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.
|ELA.K12.EE.4.1:|| Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.|
In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.
In grades 1-2, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations.
In grades 3-12, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
|ELA.K12.EE.5.1:|| Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.|
Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.
|ELA.K12.EE.6.1:|| Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.|
In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.
|ELD.K12.ELL.LA.1:|| English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Language Arts. |
|ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:|| English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. |
This course is designed for 6th grade students reading below grade level. The course includes foundational skill standards to be used until a student has mastered the standard.
Teachers will use the listed standards that correspond to student need based on diagnostic assessments and adjust according to ongoing progress monitoring data.
Effective implementation requires the support to be matched to student need and is provided by the most experienced, and/or specialized expert. Instruction is individualized and targeted to the skills that pose the greatest barrier to learning and is characterized by the greatest number of minutes of instruction with the narrowest focus for an individual or a very small group of students. Individualized diagnostic data, as well as instructional time, are in addition to those provided in core instruction. Formative assessments occur more frequently and focus on the learning barriers to success and are based on intensity of needs. The larger the gap, the more frequent the progress monitoring. The expected outcome is for the student to achieve grade-level proficiency.
Important Note: Reading and writing courses should not be used in place of English language arts courses; reading and writing courses are intended to be used to supplement further study in English language arts.
The Intensive courses have been designed for the teacher to select and teach only the appropriate standards corresponding to the student's grade and/or instructional level. This course should not be used in place of grade level English language arts courses and is intended to provide intervention for students who have reading deficiencies.
Career and Education Planning – Per section 1003.4156, Florida Statutes, the Career and Education Planning course must result in a completed, personalized academic and career plan for the student, that may be revised as the student progresses through middle and high school; must emphasize the importance of entrepreneurship and employability skills; and must include information from the Department of Economic Opportunity’s economic security report as described in Section 445.07, Florida Statutes. The required, personalized academic and career plan must inform students of high school graduation requirements, including diploma designations (Section 1003.4285, Florida Statutes); requirements for a Florida Bright Futures Scholarship; state university and Florida College System institution admission requirements; and, available opportunities to earn college credit in high school utilizing acceleration mechanisms. For additional information on the Middle School Career and Education Planning courses, visit .
Career and Education Planning Course Standards – Students will:
1.0 Describe the influences that societal, economic, and technological changes have on employment trends and future training.
2.0 Develop skills to locate, evaluate, and interpret career information.
3.0 Identify and demonstrate processes for making short and long term goals.
4.0 Demonstrate employability skills such as working in a group, problem-solving and organizational skills, and the importance of entrepreneurship.
5.0 Understand the relationship between educational achievement and career choices/postsecondary options.
6.0 Identify a career cluster and related pathways through an interest assessment that match career and education goals.
7.0 Develop a career and education plan that includes short and long-term goals, high school program of study, and postsecondary/career goals.
8.0 Demonstrate knowledge of technology and its application in career fields/clusters.