Name 
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MA.5.AR.1.1:  Solve multistep realworld problems involving any combination of the four operations with whole numbers, including problems in which remainders must be interpreted within the context.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Depending on the context, the solution of a division problem with a remainder may be the whole number part of the quotient, the whole number part of the quotient with the remainder, the whole number part of the quotient plus 1, or the remainder.  

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MA.5.AR.1.AP.1:  Solve one and twostep realworld problems involving any combination of the four operations with whole numbers. Explore problems in which remainders must be interpreted within the context. 

MA.5.AR.1.2:  Solve realworld problems involving the addition, subtraction or multiplication of fractions, including mixed numbers and fractions greater than 1.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the use of visual models and equations to represent the problem. 
Examples: Shanice had a sleepover and her mom is making French toast in the morning. If her mom had loaves of bread and used loaves for the French toast, how much bread does she have left?  

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MA.5.AR.1.AP.2a:  Solve onestep realworld problems involving addition and subtraction of mixed numbers and fractions greater than one with like denominators.  MA.5.AR.1.AP.2b:  Solve onestep realworld problems involving multiplication of unit fractions. 

MA.5.AR.1.3:  Solve realworld problems involving division of a unit fraction by a whole number and a whole number by a unit fraction.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the use of visual models and equations to represent the problem. 


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MA.5.AR.1.AP.3:  Solve onestep realworld problems involving division of a whole number by a unit fraction. 

MA.5.AR.2.1:  Translate written realworld and mathematical descriptions into numerical expressions and numerical expressions into written mathematical descriptions.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Expressions are limited to any combination of the arithmetic operations, including parentheses, with whole numbers, decimals and fractions.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to include exponents or nested grouping symbols.

Examples: The expression 4.5 + (3×2) in word form is four and five tenths plus the quantity 3 times 2.  

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MA.5.AR.2.AP.1:  Translate mathematical descriptions (e.g., five plus two; the product of three and four) into numerical expressions with two terms. 

MA.5.AR.2.2:  Evaluate multistep numerical expressions using order of operations.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Multistep expressions are limited to any combination of arithmetic operations, including parentheses, with whole numbers, decimals and fractions.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to include exponents or nested grouping symbols.
Clarification 3: Decimals are limited to hundredths. Expressions cannot include division of a fraction by a fraction.

Examples: Patti says the expression 12÷2×3 is equivalent to 18 because she works each operation from left to right. Gladys says the expression 12÷2×3 is equivalent to 2 because first multiplies 2×3 then divides 6 into 12. David says that Patti is correctly using order of operations and suggests that if parentheses were added, it would give more clarity.  

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MA.5.AR.2.AP.2:  Evaluate an expression containing three terms and one set of parentheses. 

MA.5.AR.2.3:  Determine and explain whether an equation involving any of the four operations is true or false.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Problem types include equations that include parenthesis but not nested parentheses.
Clarification 2: Instruction focuses on the connection between properties of equality and order of operations.

Examples: The equation 2.5+(6×2)=161.5 can be determined to be true because the expression on both sides of the equal sign are equivalent to 14.5.  

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MA.5.AR.2.AP.3:  Determine whether an equation (with no more than four terms and up to one set of parentheses) involving any of the four operations with whole numbers is true or false. Limit addition and subtraction to within 100 and limit multiplication and division to the products of two singledigit whole numbers and their related division facts. 

MA.5.AR.2.4:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, write an equation involving any of the four operations to determine the unknown whole number with the unknown in any position.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction extends the development of algebraic thinking where the unknown letter is recognized as a variable.
Clarification 2: Problems include the unknown and different operations on either side of the equal sign

Examples: The equation 250(5×s)=15 can be used to represent that 5 sheets of paper are given to s students from a pack of paper containing 250 sheets with 15 sheets left over.  

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MA.5.AR.2.AP.4:  Given a mathematical or realworld context, generate an equation involving any of the four operations to determine the unknown sum, difference, product or quotient. Sums may not exceed 100 and their related subtraction facts. Multiplication and division may not exceed two digit by one digit. 

MA.5.AR.3.1:  Given a numerical pattern, identify and write a rule that can describe the pattern as an expression.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Rules are limited to one or two operations using whole numbers. 
Examples: The given pattern 6,8,10,12… can be describe using the expression 4+2x, where x=1,2,3,4… ; the expression 6+2x, where x=0,1,2,3… or the expression 2x, where x=3,4,5,6….  

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MA.5.AR.3.AP.1:  Given a numerical pattern, identify a onestep rule that can describe the pattern. 

MA.5.AR.3.2:  Given a rule for a numerical pattern, use a twocolumn table to record the inputs and outputs.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction builds a foundation for proportional and linear relationships in later grades.
Clarification 2: Rules are limited to one or two operations using whole numbers.

Examples:
The expression 6+2x, where x represents any whole number, can be represented in a twocolumn table as shown below.
Input (X)  0  1  2  3  Output  6  8  10  12 
 

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MA.5.AR.3.AP.2:  Given the inputs and a onestep addition or subtraction rule for a numerical pattern, use a twocolumn table to record the outputs. 

MA.5.DP.1.1:  Collect and represent numerical data, including fractional and decimal values, using tables, line graphs or line plots.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, the expectation is for an estimation of fractional and decimal heights on line graphs.
Clarification 2: Decimal values are limited to hundredths. Denominators are limited to 1, 2, 3 and 4. Fractions can be greater than one.

Examples: Gloria is keeping track of her money every week. She starts with $10.00, after one week she has $7.50, after two weeks she has $12.00 and after three weeks she has $6.25. Represent the amount of money she has using a line graph.  

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MA.5.DP.1.AP.1:  Sort and represent numerical data, including fractional values using tables or line plots (when given a scaled number line). Data set to include only whole numbers, halves and quarters. 

MA.5.DP.1.2:  Interpret numerical data, with wholenumber values, represented with tables or line plots by determining the mean, mode, median or range.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes interpreting the mean in realworld problems as a leveling out, a balance point or an equal share. 
Examples: Rain was collected and measured daily to the nearest inch for the past week. The recorded amounts are 1,0,3,1,0,0 and 1. The range is 3 inches, the modes are 0 and 1 inches and the mean value can be determined as which is equivalent to of an inch. This mean would be the same if it rained of an inch each day.  

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MA.5.DP.1.AP.2:  Interpret numerical data, with wholenumber values, represented with tables or line plots by determining the mean, mode or range. Line plot scales to include only whole numbers, halves and quarters. 

MA.5.FR.1.1:  Given a mathematical or realworld problem, represent the division of two whole numbers as a fraction.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes making a connection between fractions and division by understanding that fractions can also represent division of a numerator by a denominator.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to simplify or use lowest terms. Clarification 3: Fractions can include fractions greater than one.

Examples: At Shawn’s birthday party, a twogallon container of lemonade is shared equally among 20 friends. Each friend will have of a gallon of lemonade which is equivalent to onetenth of a gallon which is a little more than 12 ounces.  

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MA.5.FR.1.AP.1:  Explore the connection between fractions and division in a realworld problem. 

MA.5.FR.2.1:  Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators, including mixed numbers and fractions greater than 1, with procedural reliability.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the use of estimation, manipulatives, drawings or the properties of operations.
Clarification 2: Instruction builds on the understanding from previous grades of factors up to 12 and their multiples.

Examples: The sum of and can be determined as ,, or by using different common denominators or equivalent fractions.  

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MA.5.FR.2.AP.1a:  Explore adding and subtracting mixed numbers and fractions greater than 1 with like denominators.  MA.5.FR.2.AP.1b:  Explore adding and subtracting fractions less than one with unlike denominators
where one denominator is a multiple of the other
(e.g., 1/2 + 3/4, 2/3 − 1/6). 

MA.5.FR.2.2:  Extend previous understanding of multiplication to multiply a fraction by a fraction, including mixed numbers and fractions greater than 1, with procedural reliability.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the use of manipulatives, drawings or the properties of operations.
Clarification 2: Denominators limited to whole numbers up to 20.
 

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MA.5.FR.2.AP.2:  Explore multiplying a unit fraction by a unit fraction. 

MA.5.FR.2.3:  When multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 or a fraction greater than 1, predict and explain the relative size of the product to the given number without calculating.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the connection to decimals, estimation and assessing the reasonableness of an answer.  

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MA.5.FR.2.AP.3:  Explore the impact on the size of the product when multiplying a given number by a fraction less than 1 or by a whole number. 

MA.5.FR.2.4:  Extend previous understanding of division to explore the division of a unit fraction by a whole number and a whole number by a unit fraction. 

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MA.5.FR.2.AP.4:  Explore the division of a onedigit whole number by a unit fraction. Denominators are limited to 2, 3 or 4. 

MA.5.GR.1.1:  Classify triangles or quadrilaterals into different categories based on shared defining attributes. Explain why a triangle or quadrilateral would or would not belong to a category.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Triangles include scalene, isosceles, equilateral, acute, obtuse and right; quadrilaterals include parallelograms, rhombi, rectangles, squares and trapezoids.  

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MA.5.GR.1.AP.1a:  Sort triangles into different categories based on the size of their angles. Triangles include acute, obtuse and right.  MA.5.GR.1.AP.1b:  Sort quadrilaterals into different categories based on shared defining attributes. Explore why a quadrilateral would or would not belong to a category. Quadrilaterals include parallelograms, rhombi, rectangles, squares and trapezoids. 

MA.5.GR.1.2:  Identify and classify threedimensional figures into categories based on their defining attributes. Figures are limited to right pyramids, right prisms, right circular cylinders, right circular cones and spheres.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Defining attributes include the number and shape of faces, number and shape of bases, whether or not there is an apex, curved or straight edges and curved or flat faces.  

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MA.5.GR.1.AP.2:  Identify and sort threedimensional figures into categories based on their defining attributes. Figures are limited to right rectangular pyramids, right rectangular prisms, right circular cylinders, right circular cones and spheres. 

MA.5.GR.2.1:  Find the perimeter and area of a rectangle with fractional or decimal side lengths using visual models and formulas.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes finding the area of a rectangle with fractional side lengths by tiling it with squares having unit fraction side lengths and showing that the area is the same as would be found by multiplying the side lengths.
Clarification 2: Responses include the appropriate units in word form.
 

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MA.5.GR.2.AP.1:  Find the perimeter and area of a rectangle with decimal side lengths using a visual model and calculator. 

MA.5.GR.3.1:  Explore volume as an attribute of threedimensional figures by packing them with unit cubes without gaps. Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths by counting unit cubes.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction emphasizes the conceptual understanding that volume is an attribute that can be measured for a threedimensional figure. The measurement unit for volume is the volume of a unit cube, which is a cube with edge length of 1 unit.  

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MA.5.GR.3.AP.1:  Explore volume as an attribute of threedimensional figures that can be measured by packing them with unit cubes without gaps. 

MA.5.GR.3.2:  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths using a visual model and a formula.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes finding the volume of right rectangular prisms by packing the figure with unit cubes, using a visual model or applying a multiplication formula.
Clarification 2: Right rectangular prisms cannot exceed twodigit edge lengths and responses include the appropriate units in word form.
 

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MA.5.GR.3.AP.2:  Find the volume of a right rectangular prism with wholenumber side lengths by counting unit cubes. Explore that the volume is the same as what would be found by multiplying the edge lengths 

MA.5.GR.3.3:  Solve realworld problems involving the volume of right rectangular prisms, including problems with an unknown edge length, with wholenumber edge lengths using a visual model or a formula. Write an equation with a variable for the unknown to represent the problem.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction progresses from right rectangular prisms to composite figures composed of right rectangular prisms.
Clarification 2: When finding the volume of composite figures composed of right rectangular prisms, recognize volume as additive by adding the volume of nonoverlapping parts. Clarification 3: Responses include the appropriate units in word form.

Examples: A hydroponic box, which is a rectangular prism, is used to grow a garden in wastewater rather than soil. It has a base of 2 feet by 3 feet. If the volume of the box is 12 cubic feet, what would be the depth of the box?  

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MA.5.GR.3.AP.3:  Solve realworld problems involving the volume of right rectangular prisms with given wholenumber edge lengths using a visual model or formula. 

MA.5.GR.4.1:  Identify the origin and axes in the coordinate system. Plot and label ordered pairs in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the connection between twocolumn tables and coordinates on a coordinate plane.
Clarification 2: Instruction focuses on the connection of the number line to the x and yaxis. Clarification 3: Coordinate planes include axes scaled by whole numbers. Ordered pairs contain only whole numbers.
 

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MA.5.GR.4.AP.1:  Explore the first quadrant of the coordinate plane including the origin, axes and points located by using ordered pairs. 

MA.5.GR.4.2:  Represent mathematical and realworld problems by plotting points in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane and interpret coordinate values of points in the context of the situation.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Coordinate planes include axes scaled by whole numbers. Ordered pairs contain only whole numbers. 
Examples: For Kevin’s science fair project, he is growing plants with different soils. He plotted the point (5,7) for one of his plants to indicate that the plant grew 7 inches by the end of week 5.  

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MA.5.GR.4.AP.2:  Plot and label ordered pairs in the first quadrant of the coordinate plane. 

MA.5.M.1.1:  Solve multistep realworld problems that involve converting measurement units to equivalent measurements within a single system of measurement.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within the benchmark, the expectation is not to memorize the conversions.
Clarification 2: Conversions include length, time, volume and capacity represented as whole numbers, fractions and decimals.

Examples: There are 60 minutes in 1 hour, 24 hours in 1 day and 7 days in 1 week. So, there are 60×24×7 minutes in one week which is equivalent to 10,080 minutes.  

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MA.5.M.1.AP.1a:  Using a conversion sheet, convert within a single system of measurement using the units: miles, yards, feet, inches; pounds, ounces; gallons, quarts, pints, cups; and hours, minutes. Only whole number measurements may be used.  MA.5.M.1.AP.1b:  Using a conversion sheet, solve oneand twostep realworld problems that involve converting measurement units (i.e., miles, yards, feet, inches; pounds, ounces; gallons, quarts, pints, cups; and hours, minutes) to equivalent measurements within a single system of measurement. Only whole number measurements may be used. 

MA.5.M.2.1:  Solve multistep realworld problems involving money using decimal notation.
Examples: Don is at the store and wants to buy soda. Which option would be cheaper: buying one 24ounce can of soda for $1.39 or buying two 12ounce cans of soda for 69¢ each?  

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MA.5.M.2.AP.1:  Solve one and twostep addition and subtraction realworld problems involving money using decimal notation with all terms less than $20.00 (e.g., $11.74 + $5.31, $10.99 − $3.26). 

MA.5.NSO.1.1:  Express how the value of a digit in a multidigit number with decimals to the thousandths changes if the digit moves one or more places to the left or right. 

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MA.5.NSO.1.AP.1:  Explore how the value of a digit in a multidigit number with decimals to the hundredths changes if the digit moves one place to the left. Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.99. 

MA.5.NSO.1.2:  Read and write multidigit numbers with decimals to the thousandths using standard form, word form and expanded form.
Examples: The number sixtyseven and three hundredths written in standard form is 67.03 and in expanded form is 60+7+0.03 or
.  

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MA.5.NSO.1.AP.2:  Read and generate multidigit numbers with decimals to the hundredths using standard form and expanded form. Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.99. 

MA.5.NSO.1.3:  Compose and decompose multidigit numbers with decimals to the thousandths in multiple ways using the values of the digits in each place. Demonstrate the compositions or decompositions using objects, drawings and expressions or equations.
Examples: The number 20.107 can be expressed as 2 tens + 1 tenth+7 thousandths or as 20 ones + 107 thousandths.  

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MA.5.NSO.1.AP.3:  Compose and decompose multidigit numbers with decimals to the hundredths. Demonstrate each composition or decomposition with objects, drawings, expressions or equations. Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.99. 

MA.5.NSO.1.4:  Plot, order and compare multidigit numbers with decimals up to the thousandths.Clarifications: Clarification 1: When comparing numbers, instruction includes using an appropriately scaled number line and using place values of digits.
Clarification 2: Scaled number lines must be provided and can be a representation of any range of numbers. Clarification 3: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to use symbols (<, > or =).

Examples: Example: The numbers 4.891; 4.918 and 4.198 can be arranged in ascending order as 4.198; 4.891 and 4.918.
Example: 0.15<0.2 because fifteen hundredths is less than twenty hundredths, which is the same as two tenths.
 

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MA.5.NSO.1.AP.4:  Plot, order and compare multidigit numbers with decimals up to the hundredths. Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.99. 

MA.5.NSO.1.5:  Round multidigit numbers with decimals to the thousandths to the nearest hundredth, tenth or whole number.
Examples: The number 18.507 rounded to the nearest tenth is 18.5 and to the nearest hundredth is 18.51.  

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MA.5.NSO.1.AP.5:  Round multidigit numbers with decimals to the tenths to the nearest whole number (e.g., 1.7 rounds to 2); and numbers with decimals to the hundredths to the nearest tenth (e.g., 2.36 rounds to 2.4). Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.99. 

MA.5.NSO.2.1:  Multiply multidigit whole numbers including using a standard algorithm with procedural fluency. 

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MA.5.NSO.2.AP.1:  Explore multiplication of two whole numbers, up to two digits by two digits 

MA.5.NSO.2.2:  Divide multidigit whole numbers, up to five digits by two digits, including using a standard algorithm with procedural fluency. Represent remainders as fractions.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to use simplest form for fractions. 
Examples:
The quotient 27÷7 gives 3 with remainder 6 which can be expressed as .  

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MA.5.NSO.2.AP.2:  MA.5.NSO.2.AP.2 Apply a strategy to divide two whole numbers up to two digits by one digit, including the possibility of whole number remainders. 

MA.5.NSO.2.3:  Add and subtract multidigit numbers with decimals to the thousandths, including using a standard algorithm with procedural fluency. 

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MA.5.NSO.2.AP.3:  Apply a strategy to add and subtract multidigit numbers with decimals to the tenths (e.g., 3.3 + 0.5) and hundredths (e.g., 1.25 − 0.12). Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.99. 

MA.5.NSO.2.4:  Explore the multiplication and division of multidigit numbers with decimals to the hundredths using estimation, rounding and place value.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Estimating quotients builds the foundation for division using a standard algorithm.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes the use of models based on place value and the properties of operations.

Examples: The quotient of 23 and 0.42 can be estimated as a little bigger than 46 because 0.42 is less than onehalf and 23 times 2 is 46.  

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MA.5.NSO.2.AP.4:  Explore the estimation of products and quotients of two multidigit numbers with decimals to the tenths (e.g., 8.9 × 2.3 becomes 9 × 2 by rounding both factors to the nearest whole number). Multidigit numbers not to exceed 9.9. 

MA.5.NSO.2.5:  Multiply and divide a multidigit number with decimals to the tenths by onetenth and onehundredth with procedural reliability.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the place value of the digit when multiplying or dividing. 
Examples: The number 12.3 divided by 0.01 can be thought of as ?×0.01=12.3 to determine the quotient is 1,230.  

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MA.5.NSO.2.AP.5:  Explore multiplying and dividing singledigit whole numbers by onetenth and onehundredth. 

MA.K12.MTR.1.1:  Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
 Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
 Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
 Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
 Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
 Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
 Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
 Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
 Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
 Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
 
MA.K12.MTR.2.1:  Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:  Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
 Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
 Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
 Express connections between concepts and representations.
 Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:  Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
 Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
 Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
 Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
 
MA.K12.MTR.3.1:  Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:  Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
 Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
 Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
 Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
 Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency: Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
 Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
 Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
 
MA.K12.MTR.4.1:  Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:  Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
 Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
 Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
 Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
 Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
 Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others: Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
 Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
 Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
 Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
 
MA.K12.MTR.5.1:  Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:  Focus on relevant details within a problem.
 Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
 Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
 Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
 Look for similarities among problems.
 Connect solutions of problems to more complicated largescale situations.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts: Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
 Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
 Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
 Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
 
MA.K12.MTR.6.1:  Assess the reasonableness of solutions. Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:  Estimate to discover possible solutions.
 Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
 Check calculations when solving problems.
 Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
 Evaluate results based on the given context.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions: Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
 Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
 Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
 Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
 
MA.K12.MTR.7.1:  Apply mathematics to realworld contexts. Mathematicians who apply mathematics to realworld contexts:  Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
 Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
 Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to realworld contexts: Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
 Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
 Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
 Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
 
ELA.K12.EE.1.1:  Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.Clarifications: K1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.23 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations. 45 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor. 68 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation. 912 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
 
ELA.K12.EE.2.1:  Read and comprehend gradelevel complex texts proficiently.Clarifications: See Text Complexity for gradelevel complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.  
ELA.K12.EE.3.1:  Make inferences to support comprehension.Clarifications: Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.  
ELA.K12.EE.4.1:  Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.Clarifications: In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.In grades 12, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations. In grades 312, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
 
ELA.K12.EE.5.1:  Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.Clarifications: Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.  
ELA.K12.EE.6.1:  Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.Clarifications: In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.  
ELD.K12.ELL.MA.1:  English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. 
ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:  English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. 