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MA.1.AR.1.1:  Apply properties of addition to find a sum of three or more whole numbers. Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to apply the associative and commutative properties of addition. It is not the expectation to name the properties or use parentheses. Refer to Properties of Operations, Equality and Inequality (Appendix D).
Clarification 2: Instruction includes emphasis on using the properties to make a ten when adding three or more numbers. Clarification 3: Addition is limited to sums within 20. 
Examples: 8+7+2 is equivalent to 7+8+2 which is equivalent to 7+10 which equals 17.  

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MA.1.AR.1.AP.1:  Apply the commutative property of addition to find a sum of two whole numbers within 20. 

MA.1.AR.1.2:  Solve addition and subtraction realworld problems using objects, drawings or equations to represent the problem.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes understanding the context of the problem, as well as the quantities within the problem. Clarification 2: Students are not expected to independently read word problems. Clarification 3: Addition and subtraction are limited to sums within 20 and related subtraction facts. Refer to Situations Involving Operations with Numbers (Appendix A).  

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MA.1.AR.1.AP.2:  Solve addition and subtraction realworld problems within 10 using objects, drawings or equations to represent the problem. 

MA.1.AR.2.1:  Restate a subtraction problem as a missing addend problem using the relationship between addition and subtraction.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Addition and subtraction are limited to sums within 20 and related subtraction facts. 
Examples: Example: The equation 127=? can be restated as 7+?=12 to determine the difference is 5.  

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MA.1.AR.2.AP.1:  Use the relationship between addition and subtraction to explore subtraction as addition with a missing addend 

MA.1.AR.2.2:  Determine and explain if equations involving addition or subtraction are true or false.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on understanding of the equal sign.
Clarification 2: Problem types are limited to an equation with no more than four terms. The sum or difference can be on either side of the equal sign.
Clarification 3: Addition and subtraction are limited to sums within 20 and related subtraction facts. 
Examples: Given the following equations,
8=8, 91=7, 5+2=2+5 and 1=98,
91=7 can be determined to be false.  

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MA.1.AR.2.AP.2:  Determine if addition or subtraction equations (with no more than three terms) are true or false. Sums may not exceed 10 and their related subtraction facts. 

MA.1.AR.2.3:  Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation, relating three whole numbers, with the unknown in any position.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction begins the development of algebraic thinking skills where the symbolic representation of the unknown uses any symbol other than a letter.
Clarification 2: Problems include the unknown on either side of the equal sign.
Clarification 3: Addition and subtraction are limited to sums within 20 and related subtraction facts. Refer to Situations Involving Operations with Numbers (Appendix A).

Examples: Example: 9+?=12
Example: Example: ?4=8  

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MA.1.AR.2.AP.3:  Determine the unknown whole number in an addition or subtraction equation, relating three whole numbers, with the result unknown (e.g., 8 − 2 = __, __ = 7 + 3). Sums may not exceed 10 and their related subtraction facts. 

MA.1.DP.1.1:  Collect data into categories and represent the results using tally marks or pictographs.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes connecting tally marks to counting by 5s.
Clarification 2: Data sets include geometric figures that are categorized using their defining attributes and data from the classroom or school. Clarification 3: Pictographs are limited to singleunit scales.

Examples: A class collects data on the number of students whose birthday is in each month of the year and represents it using tally marks.  

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MA.1.DP.1.AP.1:  Sort data into two categories and represent the results using tally marks or pictographs. 

MA.1.DP.1.2:  Interpret data represented with tally marks or pictographs by calculating the total number of data points and comparing the totals of different categories.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the connection to addition and subtraction when calculating the total and comparing, respectively.  

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MA.1.DP.1.AP.2:  Interpret data represented with tally marks or pictographs to determine how many in each category and compare the values of two categories of data in terms of more or less. 

MA.1.FR.1.1:  Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equalsized parts. Name the parts of the whole using appropriate language including halves or fourths.Clarifications: Clarification 1: This benchmark does not require writing the equal sized parts as a fraction with a numerator and denominator.  

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MA.1.FR.1.AP.1:  Partition circles and rectangles into two and four equalsized parts. Recognize the parts of the whole as halves or fourths. 

MA.1.GR.1.1:  Identify, compare and sort two and threedimensional figures based on their defining attributes. Figures are limited to circles, semicircles, triangles, rectangles, squares, trapezoids, hexagons, spheres, cubes, rectangular prisms, cones and cylinders.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the defining attributes of a figure: whether it is closed or not; number of vertices, sides, edges or faces; and if it contains straight, curved or equal length sides or edges.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes figures given in a variety of sizes, orientations and nonexamples that lack one or more defining attributes.
Clarification 3: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to sort a combination of two and threedimensional figures at the same time or to define the attributes of trapezoids.
Clarification 4: Instruction includes using formal and informal language to describe the defining attributes of figures when comparing and sorting.
 

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MA.1.GR.1.AP.1:  Sort and identify two or threedimensional figures based on their defining attributes. (e.g., number of sides, vertices, edges, faces, etc., rather than color, orientation or size). Figures are limited to circles, semicircles, triangles, rectangles, squares, trapezoids, hexagons, spheres, cubes, rectangular prisms, cones and cylinders. 

MA.1.GR.1.2:  Sketch twodimensional figures when given defining attributes. Figures are limited to triangles, rectangles, squares and hexagons. 

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MA.1.GR.1.AP.2:  Produce twodimensional figures when given defining attributes. Figures are limited to triangles, rectangles and squares. 

MA.1.GR.1.3:  Compose and decompose two and threedimensional figures. Figures are limited to semicircles, triangles, rectangles, squares, trapezoids, hexagons, cubes, rectangular prisms, cones and cylinders.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the understanding of spatial relationships relating to partwhole, and on the connection to breaking apart numbers and putting them back together.
Clarification 2: Composite figures are composed without gaps or overlaps. Clarification 3: Within this benchmark, it is not the expectation to compose two and three dimensional figures at the same time.

Examples: Example: A hexagon can be decomposed into 6 triangles.
Example: A semicircle and a triangle can be composed to create a twodimensional representation of an ice cream cone.
 

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MA.1.GR.1.AP.3:  Recognize that different figures can be formed by putting together smaller two or threedimensional figures and that smaller figures can be formed by taking apart larger two or threedimensional figures. Figures are limited to semicircles, triangles, rectangles, squares, trapezoids, hexagons, cubes, rectangular prisms, cones and cylinders. 

MA.1.GR.1.4:  Given a realworld object, identify parts that are modeled by two and threedimensional figures. Figures are limited to semicircles, triangles, rectangles, squares and hexagons, spheres, cubes, rectangular prisms, cones and cylinders. 

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MA.1.GR.1.AP.4:  Explore realworld objects with parts that can be modeled by a given two or threedimensional figure. Figures are limited to semicircles, triangles, rectangles, squares and hexagons, spheres, cubes, rectangular prisms, cones and cylinders. 

MA.1.M.1.1:  Estimate the length of an object to the nearest inch. Measure the length of an object to the nearest inch or centimeter.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction emphasizes measuring from the zero point of the ruler. The markings on the ruler indicate the unit of length by marking equal distances with no gaps or overlaps.
Clarification 2: When estimating length, the expectation is to give a reasonable number of inches for the length of a given object.  

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MA.1.M.1.AP.a:  Use a ruler to measure the length of an object with exact whole units to the nearest inch.  MA.1.M.1.AP.b:  Explore familiar objects that can be used to develop a mental measurement benchmark to understand the relative size of an inch. 

MA.1.M.1.2:  Compare and order the length of up to three objects using direct and indirect comparison.Clarifications: Clarification 1: When directly comparing objects, the objects can be placed side by side or they can be separately measured in the same units and the measurements can be compared.
Clarification 2: Two objects can be compared indirectly by directly comparing them to a third object.
 

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MA.1.M.1.AP.2:  Compare and order the length of up to three objects using direct comparison. 

MA.1.M.2.1:  Using analog and digital clocks, tell and write time in hours and halfhours.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to understand military time or to use a.m. or p.m.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes the connection to partitioning circles into halves and to semicircles.  

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MA.1.M.2.AP.1:  Using analog and digital clocks, express the time in hours. 

MA.1.M.2.2:  Identify pennies, nickels, dimes and quarters, and express their values using the ¢ symbol. State how many of each coin equal a dollar.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the recognition of both sides of a coin.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to use decimal values.
 

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MA.1.M.2.AP.2:  Identify the names and values of pennies, nickels, dimes and quarters. 

MA.1.M.2.3:  Find the value of combinations of pennies, nickels and dimes up to one dollar, and the value of combinations of one, five and ten dollar bills up to $100. Use the ¢ and $ symbols appropriately.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction includes the identification of a one, five and tendollar bill and the computation of the value of combinations of pennies, nickels and dimes or one, five and ten dollar bills.
Clarification 2: Instruction focuses on the connection to place value and skip counting.
Clarification 3: Within this benchmark, the expectation is not to use decimal values or to find the value of a combination of coins and dollars.
 

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MA.1.M.2.AP.3a:  Find the value of a group of only pennies, only nickels or only dimes up to $1.  MA.1.M.2.AP.3b:  Find the value of a group of only one, only five or only tendollar bills up to $100. 

MA.1.NSO.1.1:  Starting at a given number, count forward and backwards within 120 by ones. Skip count by 2s to 20 and by 5s to 100.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on the connection to addition as “counting on” and subtraction as “counting back”. Clarification 2:Instruction also focuses on the recognition of patterns within skip counting which helps build a foundation for multiplication in later grades.Clarification 3: Instruction includes recognizing counting sequences using visual charts, such as a 120 chart, to emphasize base 10 place value.  

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MA.1.NSO.1.AP.1:  Starting at a given number, count forward within 100 and backwards within 20 by ones. Skip count by 5s from 5 to 100. 

MA.1.NSO.1.2:  Read numbers from 0 to 100 written in standard form, expanded form and word form. Write numbers from 0 to 100 using standard form and expanded form.
Examples: The number seventyfive written in standard form is 75 and in expanded form is 70 + 5.  

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MA.1.NSO.1.AP.2:  Read numbers from 0 to 20 written in standard form and expanded form. Generate numbers from 0 to 20 using standard form. 

MA.1.NSO.1.3:  Compose and decompose twodigit numbers in multiple ways using tens and ones. Demonstrate each composition or decomposition with objects, drawings and expressions or equations.
Examples: The number 37 can be expressed as 3 tens + 7 ones, 2 tens+17 ones or as 37 ones.  

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MA.1.NSO.1.AP.3:  Compose and decompose numbers up to 20 using tens and ones. Demonstrate each composition or decomposition with objects, drawings, and expressions or equations. 

MA.1.NSO.1.4:  Plot, order and compare whole numbers up to 100.Clarifications: Clarification 1: When comparing numbers, instruction includes using a number line and using place values of the tens and ones digits.
Clarification 2: Within this benchmark, the expectation is to use terms (e.g., less than, greater than, between or equal to) and symbols (<, > or =).

Examples: The numbers 72, 35 and 58 can be arranged in ascending order as 35, 58 and 72.  

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MA.1.NSO.1.AP.4:  Order (e.g., 5, 9, 13) and compare (e.g., 11 < 19) whole numbers up to 20. 

MA.1.NSO.2.1:  Recall addition facts with sums to 10 and related subtraction facts with automaticity. 

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MA.1.NSO.2.AP.1:  Recall addition facts with sums to 5 and related subtraction facts. 

MA.1.NSO.2.2:  Add two whole numbers with sums from 0 to 20, and subtract using related facts with procedural reliability.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on helping a student choose a method they can use reliably.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes situations involving adding to, putting together, comparing and taking from.
 

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MA.1.NSO.2.AP.2:  Apply a strategy for adding and subtracting two onedigit whole numbers to solve within 10. 

MA.1.NSO.2.3:  Identify the number that is one more, one less, ten more and ten less than a given twodigit number.
Examples: Example: One less than 40 is 39.
Example: Ten more than 23 is 33.
 

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MA.1.NSO.2.AP.3:  Identify the number that is one more and one less than a given number within 20. 

MA.1.NSO.2.4:  Explore the addition of a twodigit number and a onedigit number with sums to 100.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on combining ones and tens and composing new tens from ones, when needed.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes the use of manipulatives, number lines, drawings or models.
 

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MA.1.NSO.2.AP.4:  Explore the addition of a twodigit number from 11 to 19 and a onedigit number. 

MA.1.NSO.2.5:  Explore subtraction of a onedigit number from a twodigit number.Clarifications: Clarification 1: Instruction focuses on utilizing the number line as a tool for subtraction through “counting on” or “counting back”. The process of counting on highlights subtraction as a missing addend problem.
Clarification 2: Instruction includes the use of manipulatives, drawings or equations to decompose tens and regroup ones, when needed.

Examples: Finding 376 is the same as asking “What number added to 6 makes 37?”  

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MA.1.NSO.2.AP.5:  Explore subtraction of a onedigit number from a twodigit number from 11 to 19 

MA.K12.MTR.1.1:  Actively participate in effortful learning both individually and collectively. Mathematicians who participate in effortful learning both individually and with others:
 Analyze the problem in a way that makes sense given the task.
 Ask questions that will help with solving the task.
 Build perseverance by modifying methods as needed while solving a challenging task.
 Stay engaged and maintain a positive mindset when working to solve tasks.
 Help and support each other when attempting a new method or approach.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to participate actively in effortful learning both individually and with others:
 Cultivate a community of growth mindset learners.
 Foster perseverance in students by choosing tasks that are challenging.
 Develop students’ ability to analyze and problem solve.
 Recognize students’ effort when solving challenging problems.
 
MA.K12.MTR.2.1:  Demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways. Mathematicians who demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:  Build understanding through modeling and using manipulatives.
 Represent solutions to problems in multiple ways using objects, drawings, tables, graphs and equations.
 Progress from modeling problems with objects and drawings to using algorithms and equations.
 Express connections between concepts and representations.
 Choose a representation based on the given context or purpose.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to demonstrate understanding by representing problems in multiple ways:  Help students make connections between concepts and representations.
 Provide opportunities for students to use manipulatives when investigating concepts.
 Guide students from concrete to pictorial to abstract representations as understanding progresses.
 Show students that various representations can have different purposes and can be useful in different situations.
 
MA.K12.MTR.3.1:  Complete tasks with mathematical fluency. Mathematicians who complete tasks with mathematical fluency:  Select efficient and appropriate methods for solving problems within the given context.
 Maintain flexibility and accuracy while performing procedures and mental calculations.
 Complete tasks accurately and with confidence.
 Adapt procedures to apply them to a new context.
 Use feedback to improve efficiency when performing calculations.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to complete tasks with mathematical fluency: Provide students with the flexibility to solve problems by selecting a procedure that allows them to solve efficiently and accurately.
 Offer multiple opportunities for students to practice efficient and generalizable methods.
 Provide opportunities for students to reflect on the method they used and determine if a more efficient method could have been used.
 
MA.K12.MTR.4.1:  Engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others. Mathematicians who engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others:  Communicate mathematical ideas, vocabulary and methods effectively.
 Analyze the mathematical thinking of others.
 Compare the efficiency of a method to those expressed by others.
 Recognize errors and suggest how to correctly solve the task.
 Justify results by explaining methods and processes.
 Construct possible arguments based on evidence.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to engage in discussions that reflect on the mathematical thinking of self and others: Establish a culture in which students ask questions of the teacher and their peers, and error is an opportunity for learning.
 Create opportunities for students to discuss their thinking with peers.
 Select, sequence and present student work to advance and deepen understanding of correct and increasingly efficient methods.
 Develop students’ ability to justify methods and compare their responses to the responses of their peers.
 
MA.K12.MTR.5.1:  Use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts. Mathematicians who use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts:  Focus on relevant details within a problem.
 Create plans and procedures to logically order events, steps or ideas to solve problems.
 Decompose a complex problem into manageable parts.
 Relate previously learned concepts to new concepts.
 Look for similarities among problems.
 Connect solutions of problems to more complicated largescale situations.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to use patterns and structure to help understand and connect mathematical concepts: Help students recognize the patterns in the world around them and connect these patterns to mathematical concepts.
 Support students to develop generalizations based on the similarities found among problems.
 Provide opportunities for students to create plans and procedures to solve problems.
 Develop students’ ability to construct relationships between their current understanding and more sophisticated ways of thinking.
 
MA.K12.MTR.6.1:  Assess the reasonableness of solutions. Mathematicians who assess the reasonableness of solutions:  Estimate to discover possible solutions.
 Use benchmark quantities to determine if a solution makes sense.
 Check calculations when solving problems.
 Verify possible solutions by explaining the methods used.
 Evaluate results based on the given context.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to assess the reasonableness of solutions: Have students estimate or predict solutions prior to solving.
 Prompt students to continually ask, “Does this solution make sense? How do you know?”
 Reinforce that students check their work as they progress within and after a task.
 Strengthen students’ ability to verify solutions through justifications.
 
MA.K12.MTR.7.1:  Apply mathematics to realworld contexts. Mathematicians who apply mathematics to realworld contexts:  Connect mathematical concepts to everyday experiences.
 Use models and methods to understand, represent and solve problems.
 Perform investigations to gather data or determine if a method is appropriate.
• Redesign models and methods to improve accuracy or efficiency.
Clarifications: Teachers who encourage students to apply mathematics to realworld contexts: Provide opportunities for students to create models, both concrete and abstract, and perform investigations.
 Challenge students to question the accuracy of their models and methods.
 Support students as they validate conclusions by comparing them to the given situation.
 Indicate how various concepts can be applied to other disciplines.
 
ELA.K12.EE.1.1:  Cite evidence to explain and justify reasoning.Clarifications: K1 Students include textual evidence in their oral communication with guidance and support from adults. The evidence can consist of details from the text without naming the text. During 1st grade, students learn how to incorporate the evidence in their writing.23 Students include relevant textual evidence in their written and oral communication. Students should name the text when they refer to it. In 3rd grade, students should use a combination of direct and indirect citations. 45 Students continue with previous skills and reference comments made by speakers and peers. Students cite texts that they’ve directly quoted, paraphrased, or used for information. When writing, students will use the form of citation dictated by the instructor or the style guide referenced by the instructor. 68 Students continue with previous skills and use a style guide to create a proper citation. 912 Students continue with previous skills and should be aware of existing style guides and the ways in which they differ.
 
ELA.K12.EE.2.1:  Read and comprehend gradelevel complex texts proficiently.Clarifications: See Text Complexity for gradelevel complexity bands and a text complexity rubric.  
ELA.K12.EE.3.1:  Make inferences to support comprehension.Clarifications: Students will make inferences before the words infer or inference are introduced. Kindergarten students will answer questions like “Why is the girl smiling?” or make predictions about what will happen based on the title page.
Students will use the terms and apply them in 2nd grade and beyond.  
ELA.K12.EE.4.1:  Use appropriate collaborative techniques and active listening skills when engaging in discussions in a variety of situations.Clarifications: In kindergarten, students learn to listen to one another respectfully.In grades 12, students build upon these skills by justifying what they are thinking. For example: “I think ________ because _______.” The collaborative conversations are becoming academic conversations. In grades 312, students engage in academic conversations discussing claims and justifying their reasoning, refining and applying skills. Students build on ideas, propel the conversation, and support claims and counterclaims with evidence.
 
ELA.K12.EE.5.1:  Use the accepted rules governing a specific format to create quality work.Clarifications: Students will incorporate skills learned into work products to produce quality work. For students to incorporate these skills appropriately, they must receive instruction. A 3rd grade student creating a poster board display must have instruction in how to effectively present information to do quality work.  
ELA.K12.EE.6.1:  Use appropriate voice and tone when speaking or writing.Clarifications: In kindergarten and 1st grade, students learn the difference between formal and informal language. For example, the way we talk to our friends differs from the way we speak to adults. In 2nd grade and beyond, students practice appropriate social and academic language to discuss texts.  
ELD.K12.ELL.MA.1:  English language learners communicate information, ideas and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of Mathematics. 
ELD.K12.ELL.SI.1:  English language learners communicate for social and instructional purposes within the school setting. 